Kyiv craft, industrial
- What role the city played in the life trade, industry and commerce?
- What products and famous Kyiv is famous for?
- What industries are most developed in Kiev now?
Ancient Kyiv can be called masters of the city. Numerous artisans satisfy the diverse needs of the population. And the needs of these were actually much. I became more and more, because the town developing, growing, rich.
Kiev artisans were famous for their skill. Some of their products have been known not only in Russia but also abroad. While the vast majority meet the needs of residents of Kyiv and province.
Great respect blacksmiths used. Their art seemed mysterious - they had dealing with fire and miraculously appeared on the fire iron. And it was plastic in such skilful hands. And is not it a miracle when the result unknown outsider action from the blacksmith hammers out so different and such necessary things: weapons, tools, items of house use. No wonder the smiths always thought Faith Healer.
Blacksmith's workshop. Reconstruction
- Describe what you see. Try explain what might serve you or any other object. Pay special attention on the horn (in front).
- Do you think that is why blacksmiths believed Faith Healer.
Most known outside Kiev Kyiv were jewelers - they called the "blacksmiths in Zlatev, silver and copper. From their studios out various decorations - Earrings, bracelets, tiaras, items of clothing and decoration of horse harness, refined religious items use. All these benefits from strong demand, because people always tried to decorate your life. In addition, the number and sophistication of jewelry cited social status - wealth, nobility.
(A) One of the notable examples found in Kiev
(B) Products Kiev Jewelers
- On the territory of Kyiv found about 3 thousand treasures remaining from the Kievan Rus. This often just jewelry.
Let us consider:
- Describe what you see. What is this objects?
- In your opinion, who, why, under what these circumstances, it was hidden objects? Why are these?
Do it yourself or with friends
- Discover and make small story about the techniques that used Ancient Jewelers - SCAN, grain, cloisonn
That understand how adept craftsmen were Kiev, Let us examine closer to their work. Here is just one of the famous Kyiv articles:
It - hauberk. It protected the warrior in battle, but it almost does not disturb movements, and therefore highly valued. They did it with iron rings. But first had to make wire. In one such iron shirt went about 600 meters of wire - it is enough to turn your school. Wire skruchuvaly into a spiral with a special device (see source 3). Then it cut in rings. Half of them zvaryuvaly, and in the second half plyuschyly end and made holes in them for rivets. Collecting chain armor had to connect rozimknute one ring with four welded and sklepaty its rivets, which was millimeter thinner! Such jewelry operation repeated many, many times, because one chain armor went about 20 thousand rings. Then the finished product there were only cleaned and sanded.
Let us consider:
- How long it could go on making such a chain-mail?
- It is clear that such a product could be cheap. And what determined the price?
- Do you think, how would you took the time to learn to do?
(A) P. Tolochko the findings of archaeologists during excavations of ancient Kyiv (IX-XIII centuries).
- More than 30 craft workshops;
- more than 8 thousand iron items - tools, tools, locks, weapons armor and items, items of house goods, horse armor, items clothing and jewelry - more than 150 titles;
- More than 3 thousand precious jewelry of gold and silver and various alloys: crosses, Icons, bracelets, earrings, fine jewelry and clothes horse harness;
- Large number of glass products: bracelets, cups, glasses, cups, bottles, window glass, smalt (colored pieces of glass for making mosaics);
- Many wood products (although it is poorly preserved): Carved decorating houses, bowls, buckets, boxes, barrels, wheel, float and others.;
- many products of bone: combs, handles for knives, needles, lining for bow wrote, icons, chess and checkers, etc.;
- Huge number of ceramics (clay products): pots, bowls, pitchers, korchahy (large vessels for wine), lamps, figurines, toys. "
(B) Titles Some craft specialtiesB. Rybakov
"Bleacher, hvozdochnyky, potters, drevoroby, VALVES masters ikonnyky, Bronnyky, kamenosichtsi, Kozhemyaka, coppersmith, blacksmith, blacksmiths silver, bows, schytnyky, Shvets, sklyannyky et al. The total list includes 64 specialty "
Let us consider:
- Who and how to use these objects (products)? What of them were easier to produce and which are more difficult?
- Which ones were expensive and that cheap? How is this determined?
- Can it make them without special Training? Why do you think so?
- Try to find the names of masters specialties (Expert (b)) the names of their products (an expert (a)).
- What needs satisfied Kiev craft? These were needs of city residents only, is not only?
Using stories and photos Experts actual (real) museum exhibits, create its own version of museums text and excursions. Your story should contain information about the subject, his name, for which he served as who and how it produced.
(A) Dwelling house. Reconstruction with authentic objects
(B) Products Kiev artisans
From middle XIIIArt. Kiev trade decline.
RememberWith that events in the history of the city is that?
It to restore very slow and never reached the level which was at times Kievan Rus. Many complex technologies were simply lost. This is not means of course that the city was not great masters, but the vast Most craftsmen worked to meet the elementary needs of Kiev.
(A) From Kyiv, the descriptions 1774-1775
"Craft in all three parts of the city normally required, ie: silver, icon-painting, sewing, skornyazhne (Manufacturing leather goods), Chobotars'kyi, blacksmithing, metalwork, weaving, pottery and carpentry and pereplit books and all that? (Kyiv masters) lead to (different) in painting and craftsmanship of silver and gold affairs. "
Statistics - The science that studies the quantitative side of various phenomena, accounting; statistical - associated with the account of something.
(B) With "statistical description of the Kiev province" in 1848 I. Fundukleya
"With the exception of some trained artists who work for the rich houses all others on skill rather mediocre craftsmen. These products seen nedovchenist, negligent treatment, complete indifference to and lack of improvement any ingenuity in forms. All work on routines, order by the original artists in the picture brings enormous difficulties. Yet less, whatever they are, in the absence of the best, always find their work if they do not shy away from it, and sell their products profitable? Prices all crafts are very high and do not meet their quality?
How many accounts souls of the total population in each craftsman (master), namely: for the manufacture of clothing and footwear - 28 souls by building specialties - the same, but this need is met mostly nonresident masters; on making economic instruments (Accessories) - 38 persons, food supplies - 60 and on luxury goods - 119 shower in every master (including apprentices and students).
Let us consider:
- What kinds of crafts by the description (source 5 (a)) calls "necessary"? Why?
- How do you think, why this list came icons, silver and gold are you? Who was the customer?
- What explains the low level of Kiev Crafts I. Fundukley? Do you agree with this explanation?
- Do you think that a lot or little has been artisans in Kiev (source 5 (b))? What can explain the different number artists of different specialties with respect to the population?
But XIXArt. Craft time is away in the past. He squeezed industry.
- What can you say about this company (where it There were, which produced, how many people could work there)?
- About that demonstrated the existence of a large pipe? Why it shown in promotional leaflet?
- How is it different from the craft enterprise workshop? How do you understand what the factory?
Refined sugar Demiivskyi plant.
Founded in 1867 The first production made in 1870 - 12 sugar goals. He became one of the largest refineries in Europe - released to million pounds of refined annually (pood - 16 kg). The factory employed to 1 000 - 1 500.
It was exemplary enterprise that cared about their employees. On area was gas lighting, working town with moderate prices, tax free dining room, laundry room, a hospital, even its own fire brigade. It not meant that the relationship of workers and employers were straightforward. For example, in 1907 the plant was struck. Increasing wage workers are not achieved, but at their request later when the plant was opened library.
"Cake" Kyiv " seems, has always been one of the symbols of Kyiv and Kiev best souvenir. It was hard to get, but who went on to another LIVING in the city or for always trying to take a miracle culinary arts. Then matters were handled easily and the relationship became warmer, and guests were welcomed.
It is clear that such a cult thing not to occur normally. There is a legend Kyiv cake was invented quite by accident. As if the end 60 s XXArt. Master of one of the shops of confectionery factory them. Karl Marx (ex-factory Demiivskyi to speech), forgot to ask refrigerator egg white to biscuit. Since he became scared suddenly ingenious and zahusloho protein prepared crispy wafers between which put mixture hardened foam with cream. Later in the cake began to add nuts - necessarily cashews. Undergone some changes and cream, but the basis - the famous white wafers are, in fact, provide "Kiev" unique taste remains. Now patent for the production of cake "Kyiv" has a factory "Roche" - former name. Karl Marx.
History famous Kiev "dry cooking" (with M. Zakrevsky)
"In 1787 Travel to Kiev was Russian Empress Catherine II. With it came a huge suite, which served most sophisticated needs of the court. He was among the mail and waiting Swiss confectioner Bal. In Kiev misfortune happened to him - he broke his leg and had to stay in the city. Since he was with the retinue of the Empress, and the city treated him with great respect. Specifically ball settled in a country log house himself (head of city government) to Pryortsi renowned for their gardens. Swiss Oduzhuvav bad, but he was active, so began to love - from Kiev to prepare fruit jams and candies. Several samples of its products were sent to St. Petersburg. Courtiers and impreratrytsya itself could ensure that Kiev does not jam worse overseas, and is much cheaper. Bal was ordered to remain for some time in Kiev and set up production here jam. He needed assistants. Cunning swine representatives of the then top of Kiev as assistant prystavyly Swiss to their relatives and secrets found themselves in the hands of a few families. Since then, the glory of Kiev jam spread in the Russian Empire and later and abroad. It rewarded at international exhibitions, his praised the famous gourmet Monpensier Duke (the same one who gave his name small candy) and zakupav it in large quantities. The most famous of Kiev famous producers of "dry cooking" (in fact they were candied fruits or candied fruits) was Balabuh firm. Specifically, its products are so valued in Europe. "
(A) P. Andreev. Illustrated guide to South Western Railway (beginning XXcentury).
"? End XVIIIArt. Kyiv was mainly distilling center. Other industries can say did not exist. Now Kyiv became a prominent factory centers in 1896 here there were 153 factories and plants and 86 Kiev district. There is no doubt that over time the value of Kyiv as a manufacturing center industry will increase.
From factories and factories engaged in processing of plant products allocated sugar refineries in Demiyiyivtsi, flour mills, tobacco factories, yeast factories and breweries, producing the famous Kiev "dry jam "
In the case of processing Fossil first occupied the brick factories, where there are 43. All more developing engineering - a number of factories manufactures equipment for sugar factories, mills, breweries and more.
Deserve attention to the tannery, a furniture factory, piano factory, five and ekipazhnyh three factory of musical instruments.
(B) By materials, electronic encyclopedia "Kyiv"
"In 50-80's Twentieth century. produced in Kiev: food, clothing, shoes, aircraft, excavators, motorcycles, machine tools and electrical equipment, cameras, radios and tape recorders, television sets and equipment for various industries industry, and various electrical equipment, computers. The city acted large variety of design bureaus and design institutes, who developed new models and technologies. The most prominent among them were Institute of Cybernetics and Institute of Electric them. Paton.
"In 2005 in Kiev produced goods and services by 32 billion dollars 6 th place among the cities of Central and Eastern Europe. Sectors of services that enable the main contribution to the economy of Kyiv - transport and communications, small and wholesale trade, real estate, legal and financial services. Key growing sectors are retail, information technology, finance.
One of the largest industrial centers of Ukraine. Almost 300 000. work on production: in mechanical engineering, metal processing, food processing and others. In Kiev, are known in the world Antonov. Antonova, Institute Electric them. EOPaton. "
Let us consider:
- That the industry (management?) evolved in Kiev at the beginning of 20 centuries., 50 to 80 years Twentieth century. And which early two centuries.?
- . What changes have you noticed? What can be explain?
- . Is fulfilled, in your opinion, prediction P. Andreev?
- . Why do you think, ceased to existence of many Kiev enterprises that existed before?
Modern Kiev industry (the "newspaper in Kiev, 09.09.2008)
"We went to St. Nicholas Borschagivka bakery at number 12. ? In shops where baked bread and cakes are allowed only in white gowns and caps. A unshaven fellow even forced to wear special tissue "muzzle" that even a little hair is not got the dough.
First get the department, where order "print" fototorty! You can order a cake with his picture. The Department is printer that will print out your picture on rice paper food food paints. ? Printer gets an order from a special table. Girl sharp movements "rozsadzhuye" around the pictures and photos of animals cream? "Confectioners that decorate cakes, we call goldsmiths - very thin in these work ", - says head of production?
But bread is not baked by hand. In bread shop are special lines. They consist of large vessels in dough which is haunting and fits as well as various "gadgets" that cut him to pieces elongated. And, of course, stoves, large as the tram cars. Before "batonozahotovky" go into the oven, knives whizzing over them, that make the cut on the top, from what Baton become "striped". From tubs to kneading bread trays with eight passes way. On the tray lay only in his gloves, because the temperature in the furnace 250 degrees, and bake as "Ukrainian" - 350. In the shop in winter and heat summer. "Work hard - very hot near stoves, always drink cold water, - Says the worker who makes the bread on trays. - For half an hour to be filled four trolleys.
- about 100 tons of bread a day bakery issue number 12. Around 1100 shops selling bakery products in Kiev and some areas Kyiv region.
- As the name of this business? To What kind is it?
- What unites it with the previously described? Why?
Know and Tell (the story warehouses):
- That large industrial enterprises are in London?
- What industries are most developed in our city?
- Visit one of the enterprises of Kyiv. Write what you think.