Ancient city-colonies on the Black Sea
- Causes of Greek colonization.
- most important cities of the colony. Spiritual life.
- public life. Facilities.
- Decline of Greek city-states of the Northern Black Sea Coast.
7-5 cent. BC
foundation of the city - Olbia, Tyras, Feodosia, Panticapea, Phanagoreia, Chersonese, Kerkinitide
Combining ancient cities and the formation of Bosporus Kingdom
basic concepts and terms
Colonization - the settlement and development of the free territory, as well: the annexation of a certain country or region, followed by exploitation, conquering, and sometimes extermination of the local population.
1. Causes of Greek colonization
- appearance of the first Greek settlements on the Black Sea historians refer to the middle of seven centuries. BC. e.
- Therefore, the Greek colonies along the Black Sea - is actually of Greek immigrants-in free, pristine lands. Before relocation to a foreign country prompted the Greeks different reasons:
- desire for enrichment through the development of trade: the new lands to settlers hoped to lay the city - a sort of trade framework through which sought to sell products to distant lands Greek masters;
- search for sources of raw materials for crafts of Greeks, for Greece - a mountainous country, so the inherent shortage of arable land and limited natural resources, other natural resources;
- escape from poverty at home.
- colonization in the Northern Black Sea has played a big role the Greek city of Miletus.
2. The most important city-colonies
The first Greek colony in southern Ukraine consider settlement on the island Berezan near the modern city Ochakov Mykolaiv region. Miletus began new construction in the midst of seven centuries. BC. BC Historians suggest that that settlement was named Borysfenidoyu (from the Greek name of the Dnepr - Borisfen).
- 6-5 cent. BC. e. Greek immigrants have seized all of northern Black Sea coast. Their city skupchuvalysya mainly in four regions - the Southern POBUZHYA, Dniester, on the Kerch Peninsula and the south-west coast of Crimea.
- Tyra - near the mouth of the river Tyras (Dniester) in place of the modern Odesa;
- Olbia - on the right bank of the Bug-Dnieper estuary (near the modern village Parutyne Mykolayiv region);
- Panticapaeum - on the Kerch Peninsula Kerch in place of the current;
- Chersonese - in the outskirts of modern Sevastopol;
- Cercinitis - on the shores of the Gulf Kalamitskoyi, in place of modern Evpatoria.
Buildings Greek colonies
Every Greek city on the Black Sea zabudovuvalosya to plan and urban development consistent with the laws of mainland Greece.
- All major cities were surrounded by strong defensive walls with towers and had fortified harbor.
- Inside they were divided into quarters.
- located in downtown's main square - Agora , along with it - a sacred place of the temple - temenos .
- Agora built around important public buildings. In some cities, they were placed on the fortified hill - Acropolis .
- buildings built with stone walls tynkuvaly, a roof covered with tiles. The local feature of the bridge were pivnichnochornomorskyh basement accommodation.
- along streets laid sewer pipes. Were in the Greek cities and water pipes.
Each city had
- agricultural district - chorus . Choir consisted of small villages or even towns, where residents lived with gardening and horticulture, growing of agricultural products sprodazh.
3. Public Life
Public life of the city the Northern Black Sea was the same as in Greece.
- With Nice every city was a separate state-policy. Black Sea city-colonies retained complete independence in respect of the Greek cities, immigrants from which they are laid.
- This links with the motherland will never rozryvalysya: is it traded settlers participated in the cultural life of Greece and others.
- Greek policies in the Northern Black Sea were slavery democratic or aristocratic republic .
- therefore supreme power they usually have meeting people and Board , that included most distinguish citizens . Council prepared a draft of various resolutions.
- National Assembly approved of them, and implement were called elected officials for a specified period - archon, strategists and so on.
Self-existence of the Greek policies the Northern Black Sea based on the fact that each of them provided himself with everything necessary for life.
- leading classes of colonists were growing cereals, grapes, vegetables, fishing and fish processing, animal husbandry.
- High level reached handicraft industry - metal, pottery, weaving, manufacturing of glass, wood, bone.
- Great Greek fame healed masters jewelers : they made it indescribably beautiful decorations in order Scythian nobles, including pectoral famous Scythian king.
- In Greek cities raged trade . Principal were removed to Greece, were corn, cattle, hides, skins, salted fish, salt, slaves .
- Instead of Greek imported meth alevi products, weapons, fabrics, precious jewelry, dishes, spices, olive oil and wine .
- Greeks in contact with local people, i also trading with him. In every Greek city-koloniyi minted its own coins .
- of the most respected deities on the Black Sea was Apollo . Greek settlers believed that he is the deputy colonists. So it turned, hit the road during the long sea journey, choosing the location for a future colony and so on. The northern Greeks poshanovuvaly Apollo Physician name (meaning "savior"), dolphins.
- went to the heathen temple, temples, altars on and just in residential buildings.
- great erudition colonists presents findings from a large number of inscriptions on various things - dedication, wishes, and even the names of school exercises, as well as messages portrayed on lead plates .
- Greeks traditionally cared about physical perfection . Versatile education provided, particularly himnasiyi. The remains of the school was lucky to find in Olbia.
- As everywhere in Greece, the Black Sea city-colonies held various competitions - for athletes, poets and musicians.
Many fans had
- Ahilleyi - sports , which conducted Olbia. They were not only Black colonists, but the Greeks of Greece.
- colonies in the Northern Black Sea were held and theatrical performances.
- variety of written sources show that the colonists had their playwrights, but knew and literary heritage of the Greek mainland.
4. Bosporus e kingdom
One of the centers of Greek colonization in the northern Black Sea coast was a water shortage.
- both sides of the Kerch Strait, which the Greeks called the Cimmerian Bosporus, from 7 centuries. BC. BC there were a lot of policies, such as: Pantikapaion, nymphs, Mirmekiy, Tiritaka, Phanagoreia more.
- 480 BC. e. there appeared Bosporus , that brought together more than 20 Greek cities.
- Bosporan included the agricultural areas of the Crimea and Kuban, inhabited by local tribes. Capital of the state was Panticapaeum . Bosporan ruled by kings.
- During the high growth Bospor State (Article 4. to BCE.) held its territory Kerch and Taman peninsulas, the Eastern Azov, the lower course of the Kuban and Don delta. In Greek settlers lived there many local tribes.
- Among the reasons which led the Greek city-states to the union, the researchers called the first threat of militant conquest of the Scythians.
During the heyday
- Bosporus was the main supplier of food in the Black Sea and Greece. Major trading partners were bosporytyan Athens.
- From the second half 2 tablespoons. BC. BC Bosporan situation began to deteriorate. Rosli threat from the Scythian state in the Crimea.
- Untrusted-reliant, Bosporan king Perisad V about 107 BC. BC government passed the Pont King Mithridates VI Eupator (Pont - the kingdom in Asia Minor).
- During the negotiations on the transfer of power in an uprising of the Bosporus Scythians led Savmaka .
- rebels killed Perisada, announcing their leader king. But a year later, pokaravshy rebels, Mithridates VI Bosporus attached to their possessions.
- However, it does not add strength or the Bosporus, nor Pont Empire, which infringe the Roman rulers. Soon Bosporan fell under the domination of Rome.
- Bosporan lasted until the second half of Article 4., having experienced several periods of growth. However, the former greatness has been achieved. Losing power in the rivalry, she finally fell under the pressure of the Huns.
5. The Decline of the Greek city-states of the Northern Black
- History Bosporus Kingdom vividly proves the existence of two periods in the history of the city-states in the northern Black Sea coast.
- first historians call Greek (Did he lasted 7 to 1 tablespoon. to BCE.), second - Roman (of 1 cent. BC. BC to 3 century. BCE.).
- period of dependence, as usually happens in history, was not happy for the Greek cities.
- Every year they lose their power and wealth, as they suffered an attack of the barbarians and from internal strife and discord.
- For 70's Article 4. almost all the ancient states of the Northern Black Sea collapsed. Survived only Chersonese and Panticapaeum that, hitting the power of the Byzantine Empire, were under its protection.