Kievan state in the first princes
- origin of the name Russia.
- first winner of the Rus' land. Hiking Askold to Byzantium. Establishment of the dynasty Rurik dynasty.
- Board Oleg. Expanding the boundaries of the Kievan state. Campaigns against the Byzantine Empire.
- Board of Prince Igor.
basic concepts and terms
Polyuddya - the original form of tribute collection. Was to bypass the prince and his wife belonged to the land and collect taxes on natural populations.
Chronology of events
hike of the Grand Prince Askold to Byzantium. Askold adoption of Christianity
killing Askold. Hobby Oleg Kyiv
882 - 912 years
Board Oleg in Kiev State
907, 911 years
Hiking Oleg to Byzantium. Signing agreements
912 - 945 years
941, 944 years
Hiking Igor to Byzantium
Statement Derevlyany against Kiev prince. Igor Death
1. Origin of name Russ
- called "Rus" knew the first state in our region strangers. It called her and chronicler.
- But now the origin of the name «Rus» among scientists is no unanimity. Many researchers believe a word of Scandinavian origin and brought to our land-Vikings and Scandinavians. This thought of the name "Rus" and kept the chronicler.
- particular, he spoke of soldiers from the north - Russes-Varangians , who seized power in Kiev, established in the city gave its name to the local population and territory, which ruled.
- also evidence of the chronicler, supporters of Scandinavian origin of the name "Rus" related to a foreign source, none of which mentions the Slavic tribe of ruses, although the names of, say, or Derevlyany Siveryany they certify.
- Scandinavian origin etnonim "Rus" speaking and many linguists. However, this evidence refute those researchers who believe that the name "Rus" local East Slavic origin.
- argue their convictions are significant in the Middle Dnipro region of the ancient names of rivers and roots -ru-, which derive from its -rus-, like : Ross, Rostavytsya, Rosava more.
- Earth where these rivers flow, supporters of Slavic origin of the name "Rus" and is considered the territory of the eastern tribe Russes.
- What tribe ruses are mentioned in chronicles and other sources, they explain the ignorance of ancient authors or their inaccuracy.
From the literary name of the state centered in Kiev - Ruska earth - Scientists have created literary historians have called "Kievan Rus", which is now in general use.
2. First winner of Rus Land
confirmation of the state centered in Kiev names «Russkaya land» was in the second half of the 9 th century. and was associated with the act of Rus princes Dir and Askold .
- and still rife with controversy about who they were named as a chronicler of Kiev princes.
- Some Mooring to believe the author of "Tale of Bygone Years", they think it Varangian rulers.
Others see the
- Dirovi and princes Askold Polana - descendants Kyi.
- reign Hole today nothing definite say no. Much more fortunate Askold , which the researchers bind certified by foreign sources of marine expedition against Byzantium 860 he
Askold trip to Byzantium
- collected a sizeable army, Askold 860 robbed and devastated suburb Byzantine capital, Constantinople and he kept a week under siege.
- powerful shot Ruthenian fleet forced Byzantium to recognize Russia as a state. As the chronicler, since it was named Rus Land .
- likely that, during the peace negotiations with the Emperor Askold and most of his men were baptized.
- However, the further spread of Christianity in Rus narazylasya difficulties.
- Researchers believe that not all the princes in the environment to understand the vision of foreign policy measures Askold not all empowered Rusyches agreed with them. Against the Prince began to gestate a conspiracy.
affirm dynasty Rurik dynasty
Meanwhile in the northern East Slavic tribes expanded their power Amazonian Warrior Prince Rurik. This is in support of Rurik, presumably, researchers hoped conspirators. However, the 879 that died.
So to complete
- intentions, the rebels obtained support Ryurykovoho relative Oleg. He was the guardian of infant son Prince Rurik - Igor and therefore had no authority to rule on behalf Kniazhychi.
So, killing 882, Prince Askold knyazhyty Oleg in Kiev began with a kind of Rurik. This fact researchers interprets as established in the Rus dynasty Rurik dynasty. Those who think Askold descendant Polyansky Prince Kyi, argue that because conspiracy advocates Oleg ended the dynasty Kyyevychiv.
3. Oleg Board
Expanding the boundaries of the Kievan state
According to the chronicler, Oleg reigned in Kiev in 1930, discovering talent wise ruler and a gifted commander.
- chronicler told that at the beginning of his administration had to fight against Oleg Derevlyany and Siveryany . Conquered them, the new Kyiv prince began to expand beyond their possessions.
- 885 he annexed the land Radymychi , went to campaign against catch and Tyvertsi .
- the early 10 th century. Oleg agreed to participate in its military campaigns against Croats princes , Tyvertsi and Volynyany .
- The structure of the Kievan state also includes tribal alliances Slovenes and Kryvi
- Prince Of Varangian rulers concluded a peace agreement that results in a long time attracted the Varangian princes of Kiev wife in joint military campaigns.
- Oleg judiciously avoided confrontation with the tribes acne , which was about 898 came to Kyiv. Duke allowed them defenseless to pass their land and they pokochuvaly further away beyond the Carpathians, leaving in memory of his far from Kyiv (now in the city) name - Hungarian tract.
expeditions against Byzantium
According to chronicles the year 907 Oleg made a campaign against Byzantium. The story of the chronicler of the brilliant victory of the legendary Oleg full details and parts.
- And most value to historians is listed as "Tale of Bygone Years" text of the treaty between Rus and the Byzantines.
- terms were favorable for Russia.
- Byzantium at the mercy of the Ruthenian pay each soldier to 12 USD and a considerable tribute to the Rus princes and influential princes East tribes who obeyed Oleg.
- Ruthenian state recognizing the right to trade with Byzantium, not paying taxes.
- Ruthenian Byzantines obligated to keep buyers in their capital - Constantinople for six months and also provide all necessary equipment on the way back.
- Terms of the contract, the 907 have been determined in 911 - after the new Olehovoho campaign.
Conclusion Oleg partnership agreement with Byzantium was essential, since it showed the international recognition of the Rus. Agreement brought an end to the same period in the history of the Kievan state, which it is called the formation . That is why scientists use the name "Kievan Rus" is just the beginning of the 10 th century.
4. Board of Prince Igor
- Unlike his predecessor as guardian of the principality and Oleg in the Chronicles of stories which have dominated lehendarnist, Prince Igor - a very real historical figure.
- Having gained power after the death of Oleg in 912 he son Prince Rurik ruled in Kiev to 945 was
- Like Oleg, he had to face the disobedience of the princes belonged to the tribes .
- Nayzatyatishymy in the fight against the government were Rurik dynasty Drevlyane . Collisions with them Igor began his reign in opposition to them found their death.
- Year 914, Igor fortunate Derevlyany curb and impose upon them a tribute that is larger than Olehovu.
- not wish to recognize the power and Igor Ukichi , for which paid a high price - three years of armed struggle against the prince's troops left, they went and lived-in space between the Southern Bug and Dniester.
- Silas had weapons and used against Tyvertsi .
- Igor Military action does not demonstrate his exceptional militancy or violence. Such were the laws of contemporary life, according to which the right to rule had to prove force. As evidenced by the relations between ruler and ruled was polyuddya and collecting tribute .
- collected tribute prince wanted to sell its profitable. Overseas goods and money, he calculated a warmonger, paid for their participation in military campaigns and his druzhinnik.
Igor Campaigns against the Byzantine Empire
Chronicle tells of two such trips. The first year 941 , was unsuccessful. Boats were burnt Rus Byzantines.
- failure prompted the games to a new campaign. Treat it 944 was and ended with a peace agreement. On that contract details chronicler narrates. Testify about it, and Byzantine sources.
Of those stories
- hereby that the conditions Ruthenian Byzantine agreement 944 AD were written on parchment in duplicate. One of them, on which stood a cross and the names of the Rus princes, remained in Constantinople.
- Another copy, signed by the Byzantine ambassadors remained in Kiev .
- Among the terms of the agreement, which was generally less profitable for Russia than deal Oleg attracts the attention of the Grand Prince obligation to provide military help to the Byzantine Empire.
- In its foreign policy, Igor had to consider not only Byzantium but also Pechenegs - nomadic people who first approached the borders of Rus in 915 p .