Theme II. Kievan Rus at the end of X - in the first halfArticle XI.
§ 6. Kievan Rus in the reign of Prince Vladimir
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
of domestic and foreign policies of PrinceVladimir;
about the prerequisites and historical significanceintroduction of Christianity as state religion of Kievan Rus;
how was the territorial growthKievan Rus by Vladimir's reign;
of Prince Vladimir as a person andstatesman;
What is "Chervensk city", "Charterearth "," dragon walls "," zlatnyk "," sribnyk "," marriage diplomacy.
The task to repeat
1. How was Christianity spread byAskold and Olga's reign?
2. What the East Slavic tribal unions were inpart of Kievan Rus in the reign of Prince Sviatoslav?
3. What changes in state administration madePrince Svyatoslav before the second Balkan campaign?
4. When, according to the chronicler, pechenigs firstappeared near the borders of Kievan Rus?
1. Beginningof Grand Prince Vladimir. Territorial growth of Kievan Rus. After deathSviatoslav between members of the dynasty of Rurik dynasty, the struggle for power. OlegVladimir would not recognize the Grand Duke Kiev older brotherYaropolk. In turn, he stirred up old palatine Sveneldom that servedMore Igor and Olga decided to curb the brothers and a ruler yedynovladnymRuss. In 977, the Yaropolk went with an army of Derevlyansku earth to take awayit Oleg. Oleg losing battle with his elder brother and was killed.
Vladimir, whothis time ruled in Novgorod, not to repeat the tragic fate of his brother, fled toSweden. From there he returned with a strong Varangian wife and moved to Kyiv. Becausea brief war between brothers Yaropolk died, and became the Grand Duke KievVladimir.
The figure in the history of
Prince Vladimir (? - 1015) was the illegitimate son of Sviatoslav andslave-Keyes Malushi his mother. Another guy was planted in a fathergovernors of Novgorod. Defeated in the struggle between the brothers on his father's legacy and in 980he became ruler of Russia yedynovladnym. During his reign, in general termsclosed state of Kievan Rus. Prince Vladimir was an outstandingstatesman, went down in history as a prominent politician, administrator andreformer. The most important achievement is the introduction of Prince Vladimir toRuss Christianity. At the end of life against Vladimir appoint his son, Jaroslaw, whowas governor of Novgorod. When preparing a campaign against him Vladimirsuddenly died.
Vladimirstarted his reign with that sent Varangians that helped himgain power to serve the Byzantine Emperor of Constantinople. HisBoys Prince put governors in many cities of Russia.
New Princecontinued the policy of the predecessors of the subordination of Kyiv Eastlands that are not included in the motion or have fallen in previous years. In 981, theVladimir conquered territory Chervensk in Polish cities (Volyn, June, Belzand Przemysl). Russia was added to the land in the basin of the Western Bug. Soonfortress was built here, Brest and Volyn founded a new city of Vladimir.Over the years 981-982 Prince pryborkuvav v'yatychiv twice, and later - and RadymychiWhite Croats.
DuringVladimir under the authority of the Grand Prince were all East Slavic lands.The process of formation of the state territory of Russia.
2. Internalconversion of Prince Vladimir. The work of Vladimir dokladav much effortbuilding state of Kievan Rus. About 988 he madeadministrative reform. Prince deprived local authorities and tribal notables plantedin the reign of his ten sons governors. Since then, in the vitalcenters were the leaders of Russia Grand Duke of Kiev will with theirwives. Prince also held judicial reform, introducing a "Charter of earth" -construction of new norms of customary oral law, which was based on ancient customs andtraditions of the Eastern Slavs.
Nearly continuousfight Vladimir pechenegs who did Rus attacked, the reasonneed for military reform. Instead of mercenaries Varangians princesserve the "best men" East Slavic tribal unions and southern borderswas strengthened by a huge size system of fortifications known as the "dragon Gear.
"Dragon shafts"named defensive line that protected the Kyiv from the south, east and west,protyahayuchys almost a thousand miles along the straits of the Dnieper. The name camefrom the legends of heroes who fought with a giant dragon that attackedSlavic lands. They allegedly harnessed the serpent in the plow and plowed a giantgrooves until it skonav.
Archaeologists investigatingremains of the dragon rolls, found that the vast majority of them built withVladimir's reign. Height of the shafts reached
"Dragon rolls" under Pereyaslav (modern look)
Internal structure of "dragon walls"
Viktor Vasnetsov. Heroes.
The castleBoys were constantly troops. Departure heroes or vigilantes, as theycalled in epic bare in the desert "extraordinary security" and warned garrisonsforts on the appearance of the enemy. To come to Kyiv had to Pechenegsovercome four barriers are located on rivers Sula, Trubizh, Oster and gums andStugna. Between Kyiv and the last defense line was built on Stugna town campBelgorod, where concentrated reserve forces. Castles on the defense lines wereat a distance of 15-20 km apart. On approaching enemy neighbors reportedby smoke or fire, with signal towers.
Kyiv at the end X Art.Layout.
Much attention Vladimirgave his building a capital city of Kyiv. At the beginning of his reignstarted building new urban fortress "of Vladimir" area
In hisVladimir board made the first religious reform. He tried to reformPaganism, proclaiming the supreme god Perun country. However, the old faith is notmeet the new relations in society. Moreover, in that timeChristendom Eastern Slavs often called derogatory nickname of "barbarians".Supposedly, all this prompted Prince Vladimir baptized Kiev Rus.
3. IntroductionPrince Vladimir of Christianity in Russia. Having decided to christen its populationState Vladimir opted for Christianity, the Byzantine model.Implementation plans of Prince contributed coincidence. Byzantine emperor BasilII appealed to Vladimir asking for military assistance to suppressrevolt. Kyiv prince agreed, provided the emperor's sister Anna willhis wife. Complexity of the situation forced Basil II to agree to it thoughtraditionally Byzantine princess married only peers died.
Viktor Vasnetsov. Baptism of Prince Vladimir.
However, afteras host of the Grand Prince helped to quell a revolt Emperor, Vasili IIrefused to give his sister by Vladimir. To make Basil IIKeep the Promise, Prince Vladimir in 988, conquered city of Chersonese (Korsun) -stronghold of the Byzantine domination of the peninsula. The emperor was forced tomeet the conditions of the agreement, but ordered Vladimir before marriage to Annebaptized as a Christian can not become a Gentile wife. Princeagreed to this.
After baptismVladimir Byzantine priests in Chersonese he had married Anne. Thisevent launched the process of Christianization of Rus. After returning to KyivVladimir arranged the baptism of the population of its capital.
NarrativeNestor the Chronicler in the "Tale of Bygone Years" of the baptism of Kiev
When Vladimirarrived, he commanded poskydaty idols - those cut down, and the second fire oddaty.Perun is said to bind it to the horse's tail and drag from the mountain on BorychevomuDescend to the surety, and put twelve men beat him with sticks ...
K. Lebedev. Baptism of Kiev.
And when, lovolokly him on the stream to the Dnepr River, wept for his people wrong, because not yetthey received were baptized. And pryvolikshy it, threw it to the Sky ...
Then aVladimir sent his envoys around the garden, saying: "If you seethat tomorrow on the river - rich or poor or aged, or servant - I'm aopponent will be ... The next day came out with Vladimir popamy tsesarytsynymy andKorsunsky the Dnepr. Converges and people without number, and they climbed into the water, andstanding - those of the neck and the latter - to the chest. Children do not depart shore units, and otherBaby shaft. Adults are wandering in the water, and the priests are standing prayer worked.
Inquiries to document
1. How, according to the chronicler, wasbaptism of Kiev?
2. How do you think would affect the residents,persuade them to the baptism of Prince Vladimir that scourged with rods statuePerun?
3. What is the attitude of Nestor to events whichhe told? Why do you say that?
Later startedexercise the population of other lands baptism of Kievan Rus. In the chronicle of Nestordescribes all the events associated with the introduction of Christianity in 988,but researchers believe that they occurred within 988-990 years
By order of PrinceVladimir in Kiev during 989-996 he had built the church of God. Itin Russia was the first stone church built in Byzantine and Ruthenianmasters. For the maintenance of the church prince gave a tenth of their ownprofits, so it was called tithes. Icons, crosses and ecclesiastical vessels forVladimir church brought with Chersonese. In the church tithes, by the decision of PrinceVladimir, in slate stone sarcophagus was reburied the remains of PrincessOlga. There was also buried himself Vladimir and his wife - ByzantinePrincess Anna. Tithes church was destroyed during the Mongol-Tatarinvasion.
V. Vereshchagin. Founding Church of the Tithes
Ivanov. Christians and pagans.
However Rusychesreluctant to abandon the faith of parents and grandparents, so Christianization of KievanRussia stretched for several centuries. Acceptance of Christianity made importanthistorical significance for the further development of Kievan Rus.
Christianity contributed to the destruction of the remnantstribal relations in the eastern Slavs, consolidation of princely power, recognitionright to rule. At the same time Christianity claimed the equality of all beforeGod.
Monument to Prince Vladimir in Kiev. Sculptors V.Demut-Malinowski, P. Klodt (modern look).
Adoption of Christianity packaged KievRussia to the circle of civilized nations of the time. It strengthened internationalauthority of Russia, opened to the Kievan princes opportunities forequal relations with European countries.
Christianity has caused a gradualfundamental changes in the Understanding of the World Eastern Slavs, became the foundation ofqualitatively new foundation in culture, which developed literacy, education,literature, art and more.
That orderthat the world learned that Kievan Rus was a new Christian state, first beganminting their own gold and silver coins. These "zlatnyk" and "silver"Prince Vladimir was depicted with the attributes of power (in the crown, sitting on the throne)and with a cross in his hand. On the back of the coins minted "trident" - the emblem of the Prince.
"Zlatnyk"Prince Vladimir (front side).
. "Srebrenik" Prince Vladimir (front and back side).
4. OutdoorPolitics of Prince Vladimir. Prince Vladimir was a strong and militant leader,who has led an active foreign policy. In relations with neighboring countrieshe used as a military force and diplomatic contacts.
In particular, youalready know, the prince conquered in Poland seized her Chervensk city. He also wonYatvyags land - wild, but brave Lithuanian tribe which lived in the woodsbetween Poland and Lithuania. According to Icelandic chronicler, Vladimirpaid tribute to all the families that lived on the Niemen to the Gulf of Finland.
Kyiv byreign of Vladimir maintained contacts with the West, established back Olga.Twice visited Kyiv Prince (in 988 and 991 years) ambassadors of the Pope. In994 and 1000 Vladimir embassy went to Rome. There were repeatedexchange embassies with Germany.
Aspiringto protect southern borders of Kievan Rus, except military campaigns against PechenegsPrince made peace with the Bulgarians. They solemnly promised to live together with Kyiv andconfirmed their words with an oath: "Is it then transgress his contract as a stonefloats, and hops in water tonutyme. In its relations with the Byzantine princeVladimir sought to establish good neighborly relations, which were based oncommon faith. He also successfully prevented attempts by the Byzantines to makeKievan Rus dependent on the state. Building a relationship with the Pope,He made Byzantium, who did not want to expand its sphere of influence to Russia,Rus treat as equals.
Vladimir wellunderstood the importance of traditional practices of the time, so-called "marriagediplomacy, and it is actively applied to maintain stable relations withother countries. Each marriage with representatives of the ruling dynastiesEuropean countries was a kind of seal, which concluded reinforcingKiev prince political union. The eldest son was married to Svyatopolkdaughter of Polish King Boleslaw the Brave, son in law was Jaroslav SwedishKing Olaf. One daughter was married to Premyslava Hungarian kingVladislav Lysym, and second - with the Czech king Boles
Conclusions.In the history of Kievan Rus Prince Volodymyr entered as an energetic reformer,activities which contributed to the strengthening of the country. Evidence of recognition for his workRussia became the prince of the people in extolling the herb as "Vladimir Red Sun" andannexation Orthodox Church canonized saints. In the West, Vladimir respectcalled "Lords Russes, thanks to its powerful kingdom and glory."
The territory of Kievan Rus at the endVladimir's reign has reached 800 km2 and generally meet the limitsEast resettlement community.
Introducing Vladimir Christianitystate religion of Kievan Rus matter epochal upheaval thatdetermined its further development. The introduction of Christianity in Kievan Ruscould enter the circle of Christian countries in the world and maintain equitable relationsthe Byzantine Empire, Germany and other countries.
At the end of X - at the beginning of XI century. KievRussia has reached unprecedented power, strengthened its internal situation and increasedinternational reputation.
Remember the date
988 - TopPrince Vladimir introduction of Christianity as state religion of KievRuss.
Questions and Tasks
1. Who was Vladimir brothers, with whom he conductedpower struggle after the death of his father?
2. When Great-ranked Vladimirthrone in London?
3. Name Chervensk city.
4. What was the administrative reformVladimir?
5. What is the Charter of earth "?
6. With what purpose the system was builtfortifications, known as "dragon walls"?
7. When the baptism of Russia Vladimir started?
8. What is "marriage diplomacy"?
1. Tell us about the beginning of Grand PrinceVladimir.
2. What internal transformation madePrince Vladimir? Have they contributed to the strengthening of Kievan Rus? Give youropinion.
3. How was the baptism of Kievan Rus?
4. Discover the prerequisites and historical significanceintroduction of Christianity as state religion of Kievan Rus.
5. Describe the foreign policy of the PrinceVladimir.
1. Point to map the territory of Kyiv Rusend of the reign of Vladimir and determine what were its boundaries to the north,east, south and west.
2. Continue drafting table "Prince of KievRussia "(see § 3).
1. In "Tale of Bygone Years" Nestor wrotePrince Vladimir, "it is new Rome, Constantine the Great." Remember, thewere famous Roman emperor Constantine. Why chronicler compares PrinceVladimir is with him?
2. German mercenary, who in 1018, immediately afterPrince Vladimir's death, during the internecine fighting his descendants came toKyiv, was struck by his 8 markets, 400 churches, multicultural crowdon its streets. Short form there met Scandinavians, Franks, Greeks, Danes,Armenians.
What conclusions aboutthe then state of Kievan Rus and its capital can be done with these facts?