military and political events of the National - Liberation war 1650-1653 biennium
First Moldavian campaign.
T. Khmelnytsky daughter Moldavian master Basil Lupu. The conclusion of the Moldovan-Ukrainian Union.
Hike Cossack regiments led by T. Khmelnytsky in Moldavia.
Hike Cossack units in Khmelnytsky T. Moldavia. Defeat him in Suceava.
Siege Zhvanets to tail.
Basil Lupul - host of Moldavia (1634-1653). As a result of the Moldavian campaign Khmelnitskogo established allied relations with Hetmanate and agreed to marry the daughter Lupu Rozandy Timosha and Khmelnitsky. After the death of Khmelnytsky T. Cossack units and retreat from Suceava Lupul, Stefan Heorhitsu deposed from the throne, fled to Chyhyryn. But soon by secret ties with the Poles Lupu no right to live in Ukraine. He moved to the Crimean Khan, who gave his Turkey. He died in Istanbul in 1661
Colonel Ivan Bohun , who led Kalnytskyy (Vinnitsa) Cossack regiment, the most prominent researchers believe after Bogdan Khmelnitsky strategies of the national liberation war. He participated in all the major battles of that war. He was a brilliant master of the field fighting and protect the city, skillfully turning them into impregnable fortress.
Ivan Bohun stood out superb personal courage, indomitable will. Have seen him everywhere boiled severe battle, where the biggest threat. One of the Poles Bohun gave this description: "... had luck bald, showing dogs teeth or tail, it was loud and cunning. " Bohun spry than once saved the Cossacks. For example, during the defense of Uman in January 1655 ordered Bohun pour water walls, fortifications, and they, like glass, covered with ice. A strong fortress was indeed impregnable.
Bohun never shown cruelty to the vanquished. He was a peculiar nobility, even his enemies called him the "Knight's man." A wise politician, he personified the part of the Cossacks, which is always the idea of Ukraine's independence, sought "... not be neither under the Polish king, no king in Moscow".
Wallachia - a historical region in Romania between the Carpathians and the Danube. Olt River divides it into two parts: Munteniyu or Great Wallachia, the main city of Bucharest, and Oltenia, Wallachia or small, the main city of Craiova. In the XIV century. Wallachia was feudal principalities. In Wallachia prevailing monarchical form of political government headed by the palatine, which bore the title "master".
territory of Wallachia was the object of constant attacks by Turkey. Since the XVI century. - Under its protectorate. Only as a result of the Russo-Turkish wars of XVIII-XIX centuries. Wallachia exempted from the Turkish yoke and Adrianopolsky peace treaty in 1829 was granted autonomy under the protection of Russia. In 1859 Moldavia united with Wallachia in one state, called in 1861 Romania.
Transylvania (Semyhoroddya) - a historical region in the north of modern Romania. From the XI century. Transylvania belonged to the Hungarian king. Led by seven Transylvanian comitates (regions) was governor with wide powers. After the defeat of the Turks Hungarian Empire in 1541, Transylvania became a principality - vassal of the Ottoman Empire, paying tribute to the sultan and had no right to conduct independent foreign policy. At the same time entered into the land of Transylvania Transcarpathian Ukraine. In 1687 Transylvania came under Habsburg. In 1867 with the formation of the Austro-Hungarian Transylvania is part of the Hungarian kingdom. Since 1918 - as part of Romania.
restoration of military action. Berestetskaya BATTLE
- In 1650 Poland was preparing for a new phase of war against Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
- Military actions started on the night against the February 10, 1651 crown army led by the Anti-Monopoly Hetman Kalinowski Martin captured the town of Krasne in Podolia. In fierce fighting killed almost all Bratslav Cossacks Regiment.
- from under Krasny part Kalinovskiy winery went on, intending to make her strong point further offensive in late February and have already started the siege. But fighting in Vinnytsia were unsuccessful for the Poles and significantly weakened the army Kalinovskiy.
- decisive battles between the main forces of Polish and Ukrainian armies occurred 18-30 June 1651 near the town Berestechko in Volhynia. The place was chosen for the battle between the rivers Stir and Plyashivka. In the morning of June 18 the first skirmishes erupted.
- Berestetskaya battle was the largest battle of the National Liberation War of the number of soldiers who took part in it.
- During the main battle, on June 20, when the benefit was already on the side of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, Horde suddenly left the battlefield: it turned out, the Crimean Khan Islam-would not defeat the Polish army, so before negotiations began with the king.
- Cossack forces to escape from a crushing defeat, inc decided to withdraw the army to the river Plyashivka, marsh banks which can reliably protect the rear of the Cossack army. Commanded to build fortifications to strengthen the camp, the hetman went for the Khan, to get back the horde on the battlefield. But Khan actually shut Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
Within 10 days
- Cossacks heroically defended the camp, beating out all the attacks of the Poles.
- was elected acting hetman Ivan Bohun. The Council decided to erupt from the environment.
- basic combat-ready troops of the Cossack occurred at night compared to 30 June. Cossacks built crossing Plyashivka and invisible to enemies out of the environment. After learning that the Cossacks left camp, Jan Kazimierz immediately sent troops there Crown troops. Those Cossacks who covered up leaving the main forces, died heroic death.
So Berestetskaya battle for the Cossacks were unsuccessful. But consider it a complete defeat no reason. Because there was no surrender, no defeat Cossack army, many of which saved the decisive action Bohun.
Bilotserkivskiy peace treaty September 18, 1651 in White Church
- Territory government limited Hetman Kyiv province.
- to Bratslav and Chernihiv provinces returned to Polish administration.
- magnates and gentry received their pre-war estates.
- Cossack registry decreased from 40 to 20 thousand.
reasons for making
- confounded felt the loss of Ukrainian Berestechko and under Cal Ripken - from the Lithuanian army.
- Capture enemy territory most of the Hetman.
- ambiguous Crimean Khan.
- intensified contradictions between Cossacks and officers.
- pressure from those officers who wished to conclude a truce with Poland.
FIRST CAMPAIGN Moldavian Bogdan Khmelnitsky
In order to achieve military and political isolation of Poland Bogdan Khmelnitsky in the early 1650's he tried to strike up relationships with the Danube countries - Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia, too.
- summer of 1648 Hetman resorted to to push the Moldavian master Basil Lupu good neighborly relations with Hetmanate.
- Lupul and further support the Polish government, which planned to use Moldavia in their fight against insurgents.
In the second half
- August 1650 60000th Ukrainian army led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky and 30 thousand Crimean Tatars crossed the River and into the territory of the Moldavian Principality.
- In early September 1650 Cossack regiments captured the capital of the principality - pm Yassamy. Basil Lupul has agreed to peace, the main condition which has been the failure of the union of Moldavia and Poland. Yes between Ukraine and Moldavia were established allied relations. To strengthen political ties with Hetmanate Moldavian owner pledged to give his daughter Rozandu son of Bogdan Khmelnitsky - Timosha.
- Berestetskyi battle Basil Lupul refused to fulfill its commitment to Ukraine. Remind me about conditions in Ukraine-Moldova agreement inc decided by force of arms. Getman has prepared a new campaign against Moldavia.
- Unwilling to allow the military alliance with Moldavia Ukraine, the Polish government ordered large Crown Hetman M. Kalinovski oppose Ukrainian regiments that went from the Dnepr to Moldavia.
- Polish troops encamped near the mountain of whip for Bratslavshchina (Modern Vinnitsa), on the right bank of the Buh.
- May 22, 1652 before the Cossack formations under the command of troops and Khmelnytsky Timosha Tatar cavalry began to fight with Polish cavalry, and the main part came quietly May 23.
- surrounding the Polish camp, the Ukrainian army attacked from all sides simultaneously. Bogdan Khmelnitsky used blunders Poles, waiting for help, built a very large camp, which could not protect the existing forces.
- By evening the Polish army was completely broken, and lost its chief. Learning of the defeat at whip, the Polish army, which went to help Kalinovski turned back.
Khmelnytsky tactics in battle Batozkiy contemporaries compared with a classic example of military tactics on the environment and destroy hostile forces, the Carthaginian commander Hannibal applied to the Roman army at the Battle of Cannes 216 BC. e.
Place Batozkoyi battles in the deployment of a national liberation struggle
- victory Cossacks Batih was retaliation for the defeat of Berestechko.
- She assisted the revolt against Bratslavshchina and Chernihiv resumed Polish authorities.
- invaders had to flee and leave the land Hetmanate western borders which once again established on the shores of happened, as The Treaty provided for 1649
- result of the new outbreak of the liberation struggle in May-June 1652 the government renewed the Hetman government and Cossack Ukraine became independent again. Bilotserkivskiy contract became ineffective.
Moldavian campaign biennium 1652-1653
- Batozkoyi After the battle, in May-June 1652 , the Ukrainian army, entering Moldavia, Lupu made previous commitments to fulfill. In August of marriage took Tymish Rozandoyu.
- Concerned Ukrainian-Moldovan Union, Poland, Wallachia and Transylvania were united in anti-coalition. In April 1653 the owner of Matthew Basarab Wallachian and Transylvanian Prince George (Dyerd) II R
- 21-22 April 1653 Ukrainian troops, led by Tymish Khmelnytsky, troops smashed the new Moldavian master. The government again came to Lupu. However bold face Lupul vdovolnyvsya yet. He encouraged Timosha Khmelnytsky campaign against Wallachia. Tymish refused tests. But the campaign was unsuccessful. Tymish Khmelnytsky army returned to the Ukraine.
- Lupul did not stop strife for power in Moldova. Lupu again soon dropped from the throne. Once in trouble, he again enlisted the help of the Cossacks. True allied commitments, the Ukrainian army, headed by Timosha, embarked on a campaign. Things did not favor Timosha. In the fortress of Suceava Cossacks came under siege. During the heroic defense Timosha was mortally wounded.
- Batozka victory meant a quick end to a war against Poland. From February 1653 the Polish troops carried out devastating raids by the Cossack territory.
- fall 1653 King of Poland of 40-thousand army went from the city to Galic, and from there - until Stone Janz-Podolsk and was the camp at Zhvanets town, between the rivers Dniester and Zhvanchyk.
- There came also the main force of the Ukrainian-Tatar army. Polish camp was taken in a long siege, which had exhausted the enemy army. The Polish camp of famine, epidemics broke out. And the final defeat of the Poles have once again saved the Horde.
- December 5 Khan and king of Poland, entered into an oral agreement under which hostilities ceased, the Tatars were given permission to yasyr at Western. Interests of Ukraine Kamenetskiy agreement were not accounted for, because it provided for restoration of conditions Zborivsky treaty no longer satisfied the Ukrainian people.
Thus, despite the successful military actions, hity implications campaign for the Ukrainian Hetman State, however, are unfavorable.
internal and foreign Hetmanate SITUATION END 1653
Given the protracted war situation of the Ukrainian state steadily deteriorated.
- particularly severe it was in autumn 1653 Six years of war exhausted Ukraine. As a result, Polish punitive campaigns, horde robberies, permanent mobilization of the population, epidemics of plague and cholera have been devastated by more than 100 cities and towns on the Right Bank, the territory znelyudnily Bratslavshchina and Kyiv.
- agriculture declined. Impoverished Cossacks could no longer perform military service. Were increasingly difficult to mobilize. For example, during the mobilization in August-September 1653 inc managed to collect only 30-40 thousand troops. Fatigue and frustration was growing in the nation. To escape the invaders fled to the Ukrainian and Muscovite Slobidska. Began to spark unrest peasants and ordinary Cossacks against the Hetman government policy.
- international situation worsened and the Ukrainian state. Rzeczpospolita, Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania were united in the anti union. Crimean khan too often in big moments betrayed Ukrainian, so union with him seemed uncertain. As to Poland, it is not zmyryvshys the existence of the Ukrainian state was preparing for a new offensive.
To preserve the main achievements of war , first state, the Ukrainian government concluded the need to seek an alliance with the Muscovite tsar, or Turkish sultan . It is in this direction has picked diplomacy Hetman government.