🚚 🚁 Збираємо на пікап та ремонт дрона аутел

⛑ 🛡 🥾 Шоломи, форма, взуття

Ukrainian lands late eighteenth century.

Upon successful completion of the Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774) when no longer need in the current Host, Catherine II decides to eliminate the last stronghold of Ukrainian liberty and defender of the rights and freedoms in Ukraine. With the liquidation of Zaporozhye in 1775 the king's government held the reorganization of the administrative structure of Ukraine. In 1782, a regiment was eliminated centesimal-order left-bank Ukraine and created Little Russian Governor-General, which consisted of three province - Kyiv, Chernihiv and Sedniv. Local control as to general reorhanizovuvalosya for example: in the provincial cities were created namisnytski government, chambers of criminal and civil cases, magistrate etc province. In each of the counties, which divided the province, acted the same management system. All newly created local governments have acted on the basis of General-law.

In 1783 the left-bank was liquidated Cossack regiments and created 10 regular cavalry regiments (from 1784 renamed karabinerski). Cossack officers received the orders of the Russian army. The Cossacks, who did not go to the carabinieri, have been converted to grain growers and the Treasury had to provide recruits to karabinerskyh regiments. As a result, the Ukrainian Cossacks was eliminated as a state.

other legal status of Ukrainian society was brought into compliance with the General-norms. In 1783, Catherine II issued a decree on the introduction of serfdom in Ukraine, and in 1785 - the charter of rights, freedoms and benefits of a noble Russian nobility, which urivnyuvala Ukrainian officers in the rights of the Russian nobility.

following liquidation Zaporizhzhya Sich and the Russo-Turkish wars of 1768-1774 and 1788-1791 he was the owner of Russia has huge areas in the South. Emergency fertility Black Sea steppes promised big profits in the future and made the South the most attractive for development of all regions, which Russia joined in the eighteenth century.

After the destruction of ordinary Zaporizhzhya Sich Cossacks, who lived in the old Cossack villages have turned to military settlers. The Russian government encouraged everyone to migrate to these lands. Foreigners were given cash assistance. By 1784 at the new lands were distributed 4,470,302 acres of land mainly Germans and Bulgarians, Romanians, Hungarians, Serbs, Greeks and Russians.

After the liquidation of New Sich its lands were incorporated into the Azov Novorossiysk and provinces. Governor-General of both provinces in 1776 he was appointed Prince Grigory Potemkin (1739-1791). In 1783 the two provinces created Ekaterinoslavskoe vicegerency, which entered and the Crimea (Tavria region). Potemkin did a lot for the development and regulation of these areas. It was conducted census, done detailed maps, lists of land owners. To speed up the settlement, Potemkin introduced order in which the landlord had to provide for 10 years here resettlement of peasants in a ratio of 60 acres each individual farm. The maximum allotment for the landowners was determined in 12 000 acres. Also banned Potemkin return of these lands peasant refugees.

At the same time and began development of minerals in the region - a stone ore and coal drunk.

Along with the economic assimilation of `land appeared many new cities. Cities such as Yelisavetgrad (now Kirovograd), and Novomyrhorod Novoarkhangelsk grown in place of fortresses, laid down in 40 or 50 of those years in New Serbia. Alexandrovsk (modern Zaporizhzhya) emerged on the basis of fortifications built in the 1770-1771 biennium for the Dnieper defense line. In place of the Cossack settlements Polovitsa in 1776 started building Ekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk). For the Greeks, whom the Russian government forced to resettle in Crimea, in place Peter stanytsyas 1779 in Mariupol was founded. In 1788 at the mouth of the river appeared Ingul Nikolayev, where the creation of new marine workshop. In 1795 the Turkish fortress on the site Annie Danube (New Danube) in the area Hadzhibey began construction of Odessa.

1797, after a Ekaterinoslavskogo province, most of its territory became part of Novorossiysk province. Land for land Novorossiya stuck title. Its population as of 1796 amounted to 554 thousand people.

in the South of Ukraine in the early development of new lands dominated sheep, and commodity grain production, which went for export. New ports were the main foreign trade in Russia. So on the steppe frontier south of Ukraine was to become the breadbasket of Europe and the gate sales of the Russian Empire and later on industrial base.

late eighteenth century. changes occurred on the Ukrainian lands were under the authority of the Commonwealth. In the second half of XVIII century. Commonwealth experienced a decline: filvarkova system management and noble anarchy retarded economic development of the country, loosened it before external aggression. Poland took advantage of the weakening of the neighboring countries - Russia, Prussia and Austria. They scared the possibility of disseminating the ideas of the Enlightenment through Poland and then the spirit of the French Revolution, so they planned to divide Poland and expand its territories at the expense of their possessions.

In 1772, the first division of Poland, due to which almost all the territory of Rus' (without Chelm land), Belz, the western part of Volyn and Podolski provinces of Austria won. As a union of Ukrainian lands from southern Poland (Krakow, Sandomierz and Lublin) provinces were created so-called Kingdom of Galicia and Ladomeriyi. Prussia went to the north-western part of Poland in Gdansk, the Russian - Belarusian lands east of Minsk and Vitebsk.

reason for the second partition of Poland was that the four-year Sejm (1788-1792 biennium) has launched the country's major reforms, in particular adopted a constitution, which reflected the ideas of the French Revolution. Opponents of the reforms and the constitution to limit the tyranny of the magnates and nobility, turned for help to neighbors. And they are not slow. To prevent the spread of revolutionary ideas and the strengthening of Poland, Prussia and Russia January 12, 1793 signed the Convention on the second partition of Poland. According to her left Prussia western Polish lands from Poznan, and to Russia - the Right Bank of Ukraine (Kiev region, Bratslavshchina, skirts) and the central part of Minsk in Belarus.

second partition of Poland brought the country's rising national liberation movement. In March of 1794 broke out in Krakow Polish liberation uprising led by T. Kosciuszko. On the right bank of Ukraine leaves and leaflets were distributed urging adherence to the uprising. However, a great popularity among the population they were not: the vast majority of the Ukrainian peasantry remained indifferent. Eventually the rebellion crushed the Russian army, led by Alexander Suvorov. Then, in 1795, was made the third division of Poland, by which Russia received Volhynia, Western Belarus, Lithuania and Courland, Austria - Lublin and Krakow with surrounding areas, and Prussia - the rest of Warsaw, the Polish lands.

based on the third Partition of Poland the Polish people had lost their statehood. Thus, 62% of the population and 45% of the former Commonwealth received Russia, 18% of the territory and 32% of the population - Austria, and, accordingly, 20% and 23% got Prussia. Such radical changes in the political map of Eastern Europe influenced the fate of the Ukrainian people. About 80% of Ukrainian population appeared in the Russian Empire.

Austria, via Turkey to the weakening of the Russian-Turkish war, occupied in 1774 in Bukovina. According to the Constantinople Protocol of 1775 is recognized by Austria. Now in the Austrian Habsburg monarchy were any land west: Eastern Galicia, Transcarpathia and Northern Bukovina.

Right Bank Ukraine, after its annexation by Russia, introduced an all division: first, the province, and province. In 1797, was created Kyiv (Kiev Kyiv), Volyn (Novograd Volyn) and Podolsky (Podolsky Kamyanets) province. However, in order not to aggravate relations with the local Polish gentry, the tsarist government guaranteed the state of her rights and privileges. She received the Russian nobility, has maintained ownership of estates and dependent peasants. Kept the old gentry legislation. However, senior positions in the management of land occupied by representatives of the Russian administration. For the Ukrainian peasantry, who constituted the vast majority of the Right Bank and most suffered from the arbitrariness of the Polish lords, no changes have occurred.