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THE FIRST WORLD WAR (events 1914 - 1915.) (compendium)

summer of 1914 the Austro-Serbian conflict escalated into open war. Serbia has traditionally relied on the support of Russia. As part of the Russian military districts on the Black Sea and the Baltic Fleet was conducted mobilization, which has developed into a general. In response, Germany August 1, 1914 also began a general mobilization, and in the evening presented the German ambassador in St. Petersburg, Russian Foreign Minister a note to the declaration of war against Russia. August 3-note the same content handed the French government. Blaming the French in violation of neutrality of Belgium, Germany invaded without warning on its territory. This prompted Britain to war.

Within days the war broke out across the globe. On the side of the Entente was Japan, with a view to capture the German colonies in the Pacific and China possess. Germany is joined to the Ottoman Empire. Formed new fronts in the Caucasus, Syria, Palestine. But from the beginning were the main western and eastern fronts in Europe. In the west, German troops resisted the British, French and Belgian armies. In the East, a combined force of German and Austro-Hungarian armies were directed against Russia.

the early war unprecedented patriotic and nationalistic exaltation has captured the public warring states. Outward expression of national feelings were renamed cities in Russia with German names, including St. Petersburg became Petrograd, in the British royal family, who was born in Hannover, Germany, took a new name - Windsor.

eve of the war, the Entente had an advantage in human and material resources of the countries of the Triple Alliance. The naval fleets of England and France dominated the seas. But the number and quality of armaments and war mobilization aspect better prepared to Germany. Almost a year before the outbreak of hostilities in Germany was prepared military operational plan to attack France. The basis of these hostilities began on the general plan Shliffena - German general staff chief in 1891-1905 he

imminence of war on two fronts for Germany was obvious. So the main idea of the strategic plan was to beat opponents apart. At the initial stage of the war in the west (against France) decided to concentrate about 80% of German Armed Forces, and the rest - in the east (against Russia). The invasion of France intended to cause by a neutral Belgium, north of Paris around the main French army forces. As a result of such strategic maneuvering ("indirect attack") the Germans had intended to surround and destroy the French army even before Russia completes mobilization. After the rout within 4-6 weeks of French army Germany had to transfer troops to the east and in the course of lightning war to defeat Russia.

In the first days of the war, German troops took the fortress of Liege and the capital Brussels. Subsequently, they unexpectedly fierce resistance narazylysya Belgians. Started punitive operations against the local population. Hrebuyuchy not by any means, the German command troops drove west. At the Franco-Belgian border, the first victorious battle with the French, the Germans added confidence. Opens the way to Paris. The French government left the capital and moved to Bordeaux.

Strategic plan

German commander seemed satisfied. Two German Army Corps and Cavalry Division was transferred to Prussia in the east, where already advancing Russian army under General Rennenkampfa and Samson. But this assistance proved unnecessary, because the Russians are already lost, and in September were driven from East Prussia. With 30 thousand soldiers were surrounded, and General Samsonov shot himself.

Instead of the more successful were the South West of the Russian Front, which operated in August and September against Austria-Hungary. The initial success of the Austro-Hungarian army suffered defeat after defeat. Russian army and Ruzkoho Brusylov resulting battle took Galician Lvov, was besieged fortress of Przemysl, took almost all of Galicia and Bukovina came to the Carpathian passes.

After winning a battle in Galicia the Russians opened opportunities to invade Hungary, or direct blow directly from Poland to Berlin. At the insistence of the Allies attacked the Russians in Germany. At the same time the German command concentrated its forces for an attack on Warsaw in order to distract the Russians and their allies to save the Austrians. As a result, German and Russian troops clashed in front of 300 km around Ivanhorod and Warsaw. The Russians, having a numerical advantage, defeated two armies opponent. The Road to Berlin and Vienna were opened. The state saved the German generals P. von Hindenburg and his young colleague E. Ludendorff. Skilful maneuvers, but at the cost of significant losses, they managed to prevent a Russian invasion.


12.5 in September broke a grand battle to the northeast of Paris on the River Marne. The German command, believing that the French are incapable of doing serious opposition decided not to bypass Paris from the north, as was envisaged plan Shliffena and piyty straight. But on the river Marne German troops encountered strong resistance to the French, in a short time managed to collect in the right place substantial forces (in French troops to overturn the front Vilik G. role played by Parisian taxi drivers). The German offensive halted. When the French say, "Miracle of the Marne. Lightning war plan has failed. However, the German command estimated the situation as a temporary setback and planned to blow flank to surround the French master and Paris. But French and British troops who came to the front, suddenly attacked. Each party tried to bypass the enemy's flank, which resembled a "race to the sea." Front Line vydovzhuvalas and reached 600 kilometerss - from the borders of Switzerland to the English Channel. The front stabilized. This was an important strategic success of the allies.

This war was shunting; now it has gained a positional character. Both those zaryvalysya soldiers in a trench, which were built before excavation and concrete reinforcement, not even for heavy artillery. Before the trenches stretched minefield and wire obstacles series. To overcome this defense, given the contemporary tactics and technical equipment of troops, required significant human resources.

Neither party did not have sufficient means to irrevocably change the course of events. So hope to rely on allies and help to achieve success in other theaters of war.

first could involve Japan in a war that was on the side of the Entente. She captured the German colonies in China and the Pacific. Entente countries required to attract Japanese soldiers fighting in Europe, but the Japanese government refused.

Germany supported the Ottoman Empire. To expedite the entry of Turkey into the war, the German ship "Heben" and "Breslau" under the Turkish flag bombarded Odessa, Sevastopol and other cities. This has caused a formation of new fronts. Russo-Turkish front in the Caucasus stretched for 350 km. Here the Turks attack was unsuccessful. In Sarykamyskiy battle (December 1914 - January 1915) the main Turkish army forces were routed. Russian troops entered the territory of Turkey. Blame for the defeat of the Turkish leadership has put in the Armenians, who allegedly welcomed the victory of Russians. Antyvirmenski were organized pogroms. At the end of 1915 to 2.1 million Armenians in Turkey left 600 thousand such genocide humanity is not yet known. It was the first precedent that train for a wide range of mass killings of innocent people based on nationality, which brought the twentieth century. One of the reasons to hate the Turkish Armenians were: religious intolerance (Armenians xrystyyany, Turks - all Muslims), the dominance of the economic life of Armenians in the empire (80% domestic and 50% of foreign trade was in their hands).

front line stretched across Palestine and Mesopotamia, where the Turkish army faced with England.

flop occurred and the Austrian army in the Balkans, Belgrade has a double, but the Serbs are not ousted the Austrians and the surrender of the country.

fighting on the western and eastern fronts meant the failure of the German plan of lightning war. The war became a protracted dial and grow in scale. But such a war neither side was ready. Now the fate of war virishuvav no longer front and rear (the economic and human potential).

In 1915 Germany on the Western Front were active not offensive. German troops reflect the bloody but unsuccessful attack French in Artois and Champagne. For the year France has lost one million 292 thousand soldiers, the British - 279 thousand, Germans - 612 thousand deterring the attack, the Germans' fierce counterattack nullify enemy's progress. During one of the April 22 attack near the Belgian city of Ypres the Germans for the first time in history made a successful gas attack (the first use of chemical weapons took place in February 1915 the Germans near Warsaw, but failed). With 15 thousand British soldiers poisoned by chlorine-third died. This event demonstrated disregard of international law (in 1907 international conference adopted the Hague Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons) and marked the emergence of new types of weapons. In military gas masks were introduced.

For its part, British and French tried to block the Strait of Bosporus and Dardanelles. And the landing operation in April 1915 was unsuccessful. Turkish troops completely blocked the Allied troops, who in December that year he was forced to leave their foothold.

in those days ended with the April talks, the Entente and Italy. London Agreement With Italy joined the war against Germany. For this, after the war she had to leave Trieste and other Austrian region of the Italian population, the protectorate of Italy to reach Albania. A month later Italy entered the war, but led her sprokvola. Italian troops resisted the 10 Austrian divisions.

It was the only relief for Russia as the largest-scale fighting in 1915 took place in the east. On the proposal of the German Eastern Front commander General von Hindenburg was directed against Russia brunt of Germany. Until now, Russian forces conducted offensive operations is to achieve strategic benefits, and to alleviate the situation of the Allies in the west. Because of constant redeployment of isolated compounds and combat power of the Russian armed forces remained high. Techno-economic backwardness of Russia led to the plight of the front. Not enough weapons, ammunition, uniforms, medicines. In Germany, well aware of the intentions of the Russian command, about the strengths and vulnerabilities of Russians. German and Austrian spies were in the Russian headquarters, even in the Ministry of War and the royal surroundings. Russia considered the weakest link of the Entente, that it can easily get out of war.

May 2, 1915 after artillery preparation crazy German and Austrian troops attacked and broke through the Russian defense. Over the next five months they seized Galicia, Bukovina, part of Volyn, Poland, Lithuania, part of Latvia and Belarus. Losses Russians struck: 850 thousand killed and wounded, 900 thousand prisoners. Although Russia has not surrendered, the German command believed that the Russian army is not capable of seriously offensive. The front stretched from the Gulf of Riga to the borders of Romania. Then in the east also turned to trench warfare.

success pushed the German army to intervene in the war and Bulgaria (Fall 1915). Quadruple Alliance was formed in Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. In the Bulgarian territory, Turkey could now freely communicate with his allies. Against a small Serbian army in October 1915 they removed the German, Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian troops. Russia could not provide assistance to Serbia, and French and British troops arrived too late: the Serbian army had been defeated. In newly Balkan war front to the middle of 1918 has not been for almost.

So, in 1915, decisive victory is won none of coalitions. But worked in the Entente countries, which were more powerful industrial potential and greater human resources. They have established a large military production and enlarged strategic advantage. The concentration of German troops on the Eastern Front allies in the West opened the opportunity for rest and regrouping of forces for the decisive blow. On the eve of the campaign in 1916 England and France than in Germany, had numerous army, deeply Layered defense, powerful artillery. Troops German allies were scattered on various fronts and were marked by high military efficiency.