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§ 20. Russian Federation. New andrestored independent state.




1.Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

            Most Western countries wasdisinterested Soviet collapse. They strongly supported the attempts of Gorbachevsave the empire. Western countries are used to the world order in which theretwo superpowers, where each has found its place in international relations.The emergence of new indication of new international troubles.

            Unconditional supportused only the Baltic countries, to whom the West felt a moralresponsibility.

However, whencollapse of the Soviet Union became a fact, Western countries have recognized the new state. In returnthey put forward a number of conditions:

- In the newlyStates must be guaranteed human rights;

- Theyjoin the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and Ukraine,Belarus and Kazakhstan to the treaty on limiting strategic arms (START-1).

            Newly independent state (except for Russia,Belarus and Ukraine) had to go through the adoption by the UN.

            The international community,country first "G-7 (Group of Seven), agreedCIS provide financial assistance to overcome the economic crisis, butconditions of market reforms, the introduction of private property andadherence to international human rights treaties.

            CIS countries agree to contractsof friendship and cooperation. In addition, each of which extends its internationalties. Muslim countries establish relations with the Muslim world.Moldova renews ties with Romania, Ukraine and Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarustargeted at Russia. Ukraine tries to be a bridge between East and West,conducts multi-vector policy.

            When creating a CIS leaders of Ukraine,Russia, Belarus agreed that the coordinating bodies of the CIS Council of Heads of state of theirCouncil of State and Government. The seat is defined Minsk.

Already in the firstcoordinating meetings of the CIS appears that different members of the Commonwealthapproaches on the future of the organization.

            Yes, Ukraine, Moldova, Caucasusstate, Turkmenistan believe that the task of the CIS - to prepare eachStates to ensure that it became fully independent.

            Another position occupied by Russia andBelarus. They seek to transform the CIS into an organization that would remindfederal state like the USSR. The journey has already taken the first steps:Tashkent signed a military cooperation pact certain CIS countries, withto unify the laws established Parliamentary Assembly, between Russia,Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan formed a customs union. Russia and Belarusdeclared community action and coordination on economic andpolitical life.

            One of the most critical problems inrelations between the CIS countries are curtailing economic ties between enterprises.The main reason for the destruction of those links is that they were in Soviettimes were created for the needs of the military-industrial complex (MIC), whonow lost its power.

            Among the CIS countries mostwere unsettled relations between Ukraine and Russia, between Azerbaijan andArmenia. Finally in June 1997 between Ukraine and Russia signedwide-ranging agreement that the State Duma of Russia ratified only in December1998 In 2003, signed an agreement on land border betweenUkraine and Russia. Remained undefined maritime boundary in the areaSea of Azov and the Kerch Strait, the previous agreement which wasreached in December 2003 after the conflict over the Ukrainian islandTuzla.

            The collapse of the USSR and the formation of newIndependent States led to a new balance of political forces in the CIS.The main conflict is between democratic and pro-forcestyping often forms an open struggle.


2. Russia

            The first Congress of People's DeputiesRSFSR June 12, 1990 adopted the Declaration on State Sovereigntywhich proclaimed that all the fullness of power in Russia belongs to its publicbodies. The Declaration was said about "the desire to create democraticlegal state. "

            From the Declaration of StateSovereignty of the RSFSR:

1.RRFSR issovereign state, established the nations that have historically united in it.

2.SuverenitetRSFSR - a natural and necessary condition for the existence of state of Russia?

3.Nosiyemsource of sovereignty and government of the RSFSR is its multinational people.

4.DerzhavnyySovereignty of the RSFSR proclaimed in the name of higher goals - to ensure eachman's inalienable right to an appropriate standard of living to free development anduse their native language and every nation - to self-electing himnational government and national-cultural forms.

5.Dlyaproviding political, economic and legal guarantees sovereignty of the RSFSRis:

- Full powerRSFSR in addressing all issues of state and public life?;

- RuleConstitution and Laws of the RSFSR throughout RRSFR?;

- Exclusive rightpeople to possess, use and dispose of national wealthRussia;

- Specialof the RSFSR in other Soviet republics and abroad?

Position PresidentRSFSR was approved following a referendum held March 17, 1991(Simultaneously with the all-Union referendum on the restoration and preservation of the USSR).

The first electionPresident took place June 12, 1991 In the elections won by Boris Yeltsin.

The basisstate policy of Russia at the end of 1991 were given three mainfactors:

1.Demonstratyvnyybreak with the past (which was being built to the collapse of the USSR and the simplistic anti-communism).

2.Bezsumnivnyypersonal authority and prestige of Boris Yeltsin.

3.Rozrahunok onrapid success of radical economic reforms.

Beginningradical transformation, especially the abolition of Article 6. Constitution of the USSR(1990) gave a powerful impetus to the formation of a multiparty system.


1. A significant number of parties and movements (over 100).

2. Paucity and instability parties.

3. The formation of parties under a leader.

4. The most powerful and numerous leftist and nationalist-patriotic party.

            Defining moment in the formationnew Russia was the August riot in Moscow in 1991 Only through decisiveactions of Yeltsin, who declared a revolt crime and cohesion Muscovites managedwithout significant casualties overcome rebels. These events did Yeltsin was the firstman "in the country, and he in a dissolution of the Union made a decisive step towardscivilized "divorce."

            Becoming a fully sovereign andindependent state, Russia once took a course on radical market reformsare connected with the name Russian Prime Minister Gaidar Ye.


The goal:

            1.Liberalizatsiya prices, the rejection of theirgovernment regulation, the elimination of "economic deficit" saturationvending merchandise.

            2.Finansova stabilization, elimination of inflationby reducing government spending.

            3.Liberalizatsiya foreign trade.

            4.Stymulyuvannya structuralthe restructuring of the industry through the use of market mechanisms.

            5.Stvorennya sustainable nationalcurrency convertibility of its achievements.

            6.Pryvatyzatsiya industrial land.Creating a class of owners.

            7.Ahrarna reform (formationprivate farming, converting collective farms, state farms to facilities capable ofadapt to market conditions, the establishment of peasant cooperatives and strengtheninghouseholds).


The consequences of reform:


2.Inflyatsiya.Price increase. Saturating counters goods.

3.Zrostannyaexports (by raw material).

4.Zrostannyaexternal debt.


6.Hronichnadelayed payment of wages.


8.Zrostannyacriminal crime.

9.Padinnyaliving standards and large part of the rapid enrichment of smallminority.

10.Sotsialnestratification of the population. Creating a class of owners. The intensification of socialcontradictions.

11.Pryvatyzatsiyasignificant number of enterprises.

12.Kryzovi phenomenonscience, culture and education.

            Against the reformist course Gaidaronce there was opposition, led by chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RussianHasbulatov Federation and vice president Rutskoy. Their allies werenational patriots, who dreamed of a revival of the empire, and force pro.

            Antyreformatory united arounda majority of MPs and began to limit presidential powers.

First seriouscollision took place at the VII Congress of People's Deputies of Russia (1-11 December1992), after which Gaidar resigned. The new head of government wasVS Chernomyrdin.

            After a lull, politicalstruggle between the branches of the government of Russia broke out with renewed vigor.

            March 20, 1993 Yeltsin intelevised speech, sharply outlined steps the Parliament and CongressPeople's Deputies of Russia, which in his opinion, interfere with the continuation of reforms.

            In response, the legislatureimmediately convened an extraordinary congress of deputies, which was setthe question of removing the president from power. But the impeachment failed. OpponentsPresident did not gain the required number of votes. Then it was decidedto hold April 25, 1993 referendum, which passed the questionthe confidence the president and parliament of the Russian Federation.

            A referendum majoritywere submitted for re-election Parliament than the president. Therefore, the peoplesupported the course of market reforms.

            Realizing that the opposition and President of BPmay lead to dual power in the country, Yeltsin September 21, 1993 in"Address to the citizens of Russia announced that has signed a decree" Onphased constitutional reform in Russia, "by which rozpuskalasParliament, elections and serve in a new representative body of power -The federal charges.

            In response, Parliament of Russiamet in urgent session, and vice president of qualified Rutskoy O.Yeltsin as a coup and said that assumes authoritypresident.

            Urging the public to peaceconflict resolution by simultaneous parliamentary elections and presidential authoritieswere not heard. Irreconcilable opposition leaders brought their armed supporterson the streets of Moscow.

            The President brought to Moscow troops,suppressed the speech of the opposition. Center for Opposition - Parliament HouseRussian Federation ("White House") was shot from tanks, and thenwas taken by storm. Opposition leaders were arrested.

            Prydushyvshy statement of opposition, Yeltsinmade constitutional reform.

            December 12, 1993 onreferendum adopted a new Constitution of Russia and at the same time, elections were heldin higher representative and legislative body - the Federal Assembly, whichconsist of two chambers - the Federation Council and State Duma. In electionstook an active part of opposition leaders and leaders HKCHP that were amnesty.The relative majority of seats in the Federal Assembly possess representativesLiberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) led by Zhirinovsky, communistsand national-patriots. Democratic forces were represented by small amountDeputies.

            In 1995, the regularState Duma elections, which took most of the Communists, led byG. Zyuganov, Liberal Democratic Party won the second, third - the government bloc "Our Russia House, Fourth - the Democrats.

Under the newConstitution greatly expanded presidential powers, which enabled him toact relatively independently, ignoring the opinion of the Federal Assembly.

            Sensitive issue for Russia today isrelations with subjects of the federation, some of them show separatisttrends. The desire to preserve the unity of Russia led to the tragedy in Chechnya,which in 1992 President Dudayev regime became established. He led by policysecession of Russia and establish an independent State Ichkeria.

            In December 1994, Russianmanagement after failing to ignite a civil war in Tajikistan andbring to power forces loyal to Russia, managed to armed intervention.The intervention, designed as a police action resulted in a long war. Itsvictims were over 50 thousand people. Chechen troops did stubborn resistancefederal troops. Attempts to overcome peacefully the conflict were not successful.The fighting erupted in Dagestan, and even outside the republic(Reid Chechen formations and Budonovsk Pervomaisk). Early1996 Boris Yeltsin unveiled a program of peaceful settlement of the Chechen crisis.Russian authorities agreed to direct talks with D. Dudayev, whyrefused to continue. Meanwhile, the Russian special services have managed to destroy the leaderD. Dudayev Chechens, who died from direct rocket hit. Campaign in Chechnyawas like a warning to other subjects of the Federation, the Kremlin neverallow them to secede from Russia. The war in Chechnya, condemned the Russian democratsand the world community. Russia had to withdraw from Chechnya. SolutionChechen conflict has been postponed for the future.

            In August, 1999 brokeThe second Chechen war. The reason for its solving the Chechen invasion wasformations that were followers of Wahhabism (current in Islam) to Dagestan fromto encourage separatist, anti-Russian forces in the republic. Afterfierce fighting Chechen and Dagestan were defeated and the formationwere forced to leave in Chechnya. In 2000, Russian troops deployedlarge-scale operation to seize Chechnya. As a result of bloody battles withChechen armed formations, who skillfully used guerrilla tactics,Russian forces managed to seize key areas of the Republic,authorities to eliminate the previous regime, but they suppress the Chechen resistancefailed. The independence of Chechnya conquest during the First War was deleted.But the Chechens do not lay down their arms, the fighting continued to the present day.Desperate step in the new Chechen war was a terrorist attack in Moscow (Autumn2002). Group fighters bombers captured theater building during a musicalNord-Ost. Hostages was over 600 people., Detained for three days.Russian special services zastosuvavsya poisonous gas had surgery to liberationhostages. As a result of the operation militants were killed, but poisoningkilled over 120 hostages.

            In relations with subjectsFederation, Russia remains an acute economic problem. Summer 1998it has affected the financial crisis, which caused an inflation, a new declineproduction, mass destruction of private enterprises, especially banks. With the crisisfailed to manage the government headed by O. Kiriyenko and Yevgeny Primakov. But onspring it was replaced by S. Stepashin, and in summer the prime minister was Vladimir Putin. 31December 1999 in a televised address to the Russian people, Boris Yeltsinannounced his resignation, and in March 2000 new presidentRussia's Vladimir Putin was elected. is re-elected in 2004

            During Putin's presidencyhave stabilized the economic situation and ensure stable growth. Ithelped enhance the expansion of Russian capital in the CIS countries and a moretough in foreign policy.


ActivityRussian Government



Chairman  Governments (of years)

Positive in  activity

Negative  activity


Boris Yeltsin


E. Gaidar  (June - December 1992)

Implementation of the "shock" therapy: laying  foundations of a market economy, filling goods stores, the formation of class  private owners and entrepreneurs;  legalization of the dollar, the introduction of private ownership of housing.

The sharp rise in prices, devaluation of deposits;  emergence of unemployment, monetary reform, voucher privatization, rampant criminality

Viktor Chernomyrdin  (December 1992 - March 1998)

Commodity abundance, prosperity "shuttle"  businesses, the stabilization of the ruble, Russia's entry to the "Big Eight";  attracting foreign investment.

Debts for wages and pensions, and flowering  the collapse of pyramid schemes and access to budget funds oligarchs, "black  Tuesday ", the rapid fall of the ruble, the war in Chechnya and defeat it.


S. Kyryyenko (April-August 1998)

Initiated financial state  pyramids; attempt to balance the budget

Strikes, accompanied by "rail  war "(overlapping movement on the railways) August 17 - default, ruble fall;


E. Primakov (September 1998 - May  1999)

Political stabilization, retention rate  ruble of arrears on pensions and salaries, corruption  criminal cases

Increased tension in relations with countries  West's lack of foreign credits; conflict with the president and the media


S. Stepashin (May-August 1999)

Getting a credit recovery  economic growth, restructuring of debts of the USSR; warming of relations with  West

Gasoline crisis, worsening the situation in  Northern Caucasus (the fighting in Dagestan)


Vladimir Putin  (August-December 1999)

Stabilizing the situation in the country,

troops rout militants in Dagestan.

Start the Second Chechen War;


Vladimir Putin


Kasyanov (January 2000 - 2003)

The fight against oligarchs and organized crime.  Establishment of state control over major financial flows;  production growth, protection of state interests of Russia in economic  relations with other states; a pragmatic policy relative  stabilization in Chechnya

Uncertainty of economic growth, falling  exports prevailing in the export of raw materials, lack of  relations with neighboring states

M. Fradkov (2004 -?

He continued his predecessor's course.










3. Azerbaijan

            Among the countries that emerged onthe former Soviet Union, Azerbaijan made a record of the numbercoup d'etat and rebellion. Such instability was explained by the struggledifferent political forces that relied on foreign patrons. Basic,around which the struggle was, is oil. Political struggles amplifiedethnic conflict between Armenians and Azerbaijanis, who poured inlong war years 1988-1994

            Perestroika in the USSR promotedAzerbaijan national movement in oformyvsya National FrontAzerbaijan. NFA was in opposition to the current communist regime. NFAunited in their ranks full range of nationalist forces - from moderateradical.

            Democratic process initiatedin the USSR, NFA allowed to participate in parliamentary elections in 1990 NFAhad such strong support that the Communist leaders lost controlsituation.

            Communist reluctance to cedeauthorities led to a mountain that NFA was radical elements who have beeninitiated a number of actions:

- Autumn1989 strike movement was initiated;

- Pressure onauthorities of the Republic;

- Initiateddestruction of border barriers have been built and the fortifications on the border with Iran.

            Moscow's attempts to resolve the problemthrough negotiations between the parties was not successful. Voltagegrowing every day. Oil fire in pidlyvala enmity between Armenians andAzerbaijanis. February 20, 1988 session of the Council of People's DeputiesNagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region, where 98% of the population of Armenians appealedrequest to the Supreme Soviet to pass NKAO warehouse in Armenia.

            In early December, started in BakuArmenian pogroms accommodation. Three days after the pogroms and evacuationArmenian population in Baku put troops under the pretext of protecting the Armenians. Incity began fighting between troops and detachments NFA. On the true purpose of thismilitary action later said Marshal muscular: NFA to destroy the structure that wasachieved.

            In the parliamentary elections1990 in a state of emergency, the Communists won. PresidentAzerbaijan became A. Mutalibov. Hold on to power he managed to February1992

            The collapse of the Soviet Union deprived the Communistsmain pillars - army, and elections in February 1992 NFA won.President of the country was elected A. Elchibey. Parliament was dissolvedRepublic. The government passed a mini Majlis (national council of 50 persons).

            Communists are not resigned to defeat andMay 15, 1992 Mutalibova supporters returned him to power. JudgedHe only country in the morning on May 16.

            NFA, returning to power, tookcourse of rapprochement with Turkey and other Islamic states. Ideveloped a contract with Western oil companies on the development of depositsoil on the Caspian Sea shelf.

            Supporters Mutalibova resorted tocoup to remove Elchibeya. June 4, 1993Azerbaijani military commander in Karabakh Colonel S. Huseynov inGanja raised rebellion and sent troops to Baku. Elchibey, deprivedsupport troops left Baku.

            While both moved BakuHuseynov units, the power in the capital intercepted Heydar Aliyev, former headCommunist Party of Azerbaijan. Guseinov left to join the union withAliev. But this union was unnatural.

            Spring 1993 H. Aliyev signedoil contract, which immediately caused a riot, the center of which was againGanja and headed it again Huseynov. This time the rebellion was suppressed. Aliyeventrenched in power.

            Comingto power, Aliyev made steps that the support of the population:

- Have ceased hostilities with Armenia and transferredconflict in the regime of diplomatic negotiations;

- Continued market reforms;

- Azerbaijan joined the CIS;

been implemented project for the extraction and transportationCaspian oil.

            In October2003 was elected president, whose son won Gaidar AliyevIl'gam Aliyev, who voted for 80% of the population.


4. Georgia

            Democratic processes in the USSR hadsignificant impact on Georgia. It began the formation of opposition movements, in whichdominated anti-communist sentiment. In April 1989 wasdemonstration in Tbilisi under democratic slogans. Opposition demonstrators wereabandoned army. This led to increased anti-communist sentiments. In the elections1990 alliance won Round Table - Free Georgia ". Onfirst presidential election president Zviad Gamsakhurdia was elected,writer, former dissident.

            Gamsakhurdia took a course on developmentunitary independent Georgia. Began creating their own army -National Guard. Against such a course by the national minorities(Ossetians, Abkhazians, etc.), allied, and then the Russian leadership.

            The first act towards aunitary state was the abolition of the autonomy of South Ossetia, which ruledseparatist sentiments and desire to unite with North Ossetia, whichRussia was in stock. This action led to tensions betweenOssetians and Georgians, and eventually to the outbreak of hostilities. The main point of fightingbecame the administrative center of South Ossetia - the city of Tskhinvali. To stopthe conflict in the region meet Soviet troops were introduced for the first timehave been used in peacekeeping missions.

            Gradually ethnic conflictspilled over into Abkhazia, where separatist movements have begun in 1988 OnAbkhaz separatists has led Ardzimba, chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia.

            Along with national problemsGeorgia impressed and economic difficulties.

            Unable to cope withproblems Gamsakhurdia resorted to dictatorial methods of rule: prohibitedcriticism in his address, limited democratic freedoms. Against oppositionapplied forcefully.

In responseOpposition moves from peaceful methods of struggle to armed resistance.

            Significant influence on events in Georgiamade the August 1991 riot in Moscow. Leaders HKCHP was presented the ultimatumGamsakhurdia immediate dissolution of the National Guard. Frightened opportunitymilitary action against Georgia, Gamsakhurdia took an ultimatum. But the commanderGeorgia National Guard refused to Kitovani presidential decree. Sosplit in the camp "zviadystiv.

            Suppression of rebellion in Moscow did notled to the cessation of conflict in Georgia. Opposition forces in December1991 committed mutiny against Gamsakhurdia. In Tbilisi started fights.Nearly a month opposition tried to seize the Government House, where he wasGamsakhurdia. In January 1992 He fled to West Georgia, which formedgroups of his supporters. In Georgia, began a civil war.

            Meanwhile, Abkhazia actuallyseparated from Georgia.

            Council of State, which came to powerin Tbilisi, was not respected national leader. All memberswere aged 30 years and tended to extremist actions.

            The policy of the State Council in principledid not differ from the policy of Gamsakhurdia. Georgia refused to join the CIS,was hostile to Russia's internal political repression conducted against"Zviadystiv" and sought to restore a single and united Georgia. The country's economywas in full collapse: started an unprecedented inflation, missing itemsessential foodstuffs.

            To raise the authority of the newstate agency, Chairman of the Board was invited M. Shevardnadze, former Foreign MinisterForeign Affairs of the USSR.

            Seeking to overcome the separatistmotions, the State Council resorted to military action against Abkhazia. In February1992 occurred first tour against Abkhazia. Having reached the river Psoyu,troops led Karkarashvili two weeks returned to Georgia. Thiscampaign of intimidation had a reverse result. In Abkhazia, supporting Russiaozbroyuvalys strengthened and created militias.

            Summer 1992 Georgia receivedweapons of the former Soviet forces, situated in its territory, and August 141992 launched war against Abkhazia. Georgian troops captured the citySukhumi and came close to the city Gudauta. Abkhaz troops did stubbornresistance. On their side fought mercenaries from Russia, Chechnya. AbkhazBattalion, "led by Basayev played a crucial role in the defeatGeorgian troops. Abkhaz forces, which appeared in aircraft and heavy weapons,early 1993 attacked in the summer and took the city of Sukhumiousted Georgian troops from Abkhazia.

            Defeat decide to useGamsakhurdia's supporters, who have intensified their activities in western Georgia, but werefinally defeated. Gamsakhurdia moved to Chechnya, where he eventually died in unclearcircumstances.

            Shevardnadze realized that the onlyway out of predicament - is to deprive Abkhazia support Russia.He agreed to join the CIS and Georgia began talks on the deploymentRussian bases in Georgia, then the agreement on the establishment of 4 Russianbases.

            Russia, having achieved his forcedAbkhazia to go for peace talks with Georgia. At a meeting of leaders of CIS countries inDecember 1995 it was decided the imposition of economic sanctionsagainst Abkhazia. Its leaders, finding themselves in a difficult position, diddesperate step - Abkhazia declared independence. But no oneacknowledged. Abkhazia remains one: to agree to stay in Georgia forautonomy as it offered the government in Tbilisi.

            Rozpravyvshys with the opposition and enlistinginternational support for their actions, Shevardnadze led the struggle for strengtheningauthority and guidance of the country.

            After a series of human movementsShevardnadze has eliminated its competitors, has managed to rein in criminal gangs.Began carrying out radical economic reforms. Was developed andadopted a new Constitution. Spring 1995 Shevardnadze was elected president.Been established in Georgia long-awaited stability. However, twice for Presidentcountry was committed assault. This indicates that the current leaders of Georgia isserious opponents.

            In Abkhaz separatism,Georgian authorities have to solve similar problems in SouthOssetia and Adjara.

            Beyond the secession of Georgiafalls to overcome economic problems and problems with Russia (presenceRussian troops on its territory and Chechen refugees).

            In foreign policy, Georgiaidentified priority western direction. In 1999 Georgia declared itsdesire to join NATO and actively moving in this direction. Particularly close relationshipestablished between Georgia and Ukraine and the USA.

            In December 2003, Georgiashook the events that are called "rose revolution". In the elections to parliamentwon the opposition. However, the current government led by Shevarnadze triedfalsify election results. This caused the outbreak of popular indignation.After Shevarnadze resigned. January 4, 2004 heldearly presidential elections, in which the winner Mikhail Saakashvili.Before Georgia opened a prospect to democracy.The new leadership faces many challenges, chief among them restorationunity of the country. The first test for new President has a conflict withleadership of Abkhazia, which he left with honor, restoring Georgiansovereignty over this autonomous republic.


5. Armenia

            In a difficult situation wasArmenia. Being surrounded by the conflicting parties, it was inisolation. She had to do exhausting war with Azerbaijan, through whichpass connections with CIS countries. In this war, Armenia has managed tomaster 1 / 10 part of Azerbaijan. Much has provided aid of the Armeniandiaspora that helped her survive in difficult times. The first presidentLeon was Ter-Petrosyan. After the government crisis in 1998 he was forcedresign. Elected new president of Armenia Robert Kocharian, who won andthe next election in 2003 But his rule, the further increasingcauses frustration. In spring 2004 there were mass protestsorganized opposition, inspired by the example of neighboring Georgia. The protestersclaimed that the election results in 2003 were rigged.


6. Tajikistan

            After the collapse of Soviet power struggleTajikistan also has tragic forms.

            The first president waselected former Secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee of Tajikistan Rahmon Nabiyeva. He wasnative of Khujand (formerly Leninabad), one of the most developed regions.He also supported Konibodom clan.

            Democratic and economictransformations in Russia have had a significant influence on the democratic oppositionNabiyeva course on preservation in veiled form of Soviet orders. Inless developed areas of the country formed the Islamic opposition, which relied onsupport of Afghan Tajiks.

            In May, 1992 oppositionorganized a continuous rally in the central square in Dushanbe. Under pressuredemonstrators were banned Communist Party, dismantled monumentLenin proclaimed Tajik language.

            Supporters organized Nabiyevaparallel rally. In short the political confrontation escalated into a bloodyslaughter. When desperate people come to Nabiyeva, they were met Russian tanks201-th division.

            Finally Nabiyev agreed to go onresignation and issued a decree to establish a coalition government. But peace is not stepped.The situation got out of control.

            Hodzhentski Konibodom and clansformed the Popular Front led by S. Safarov. The country startedcivil war. Meanwhile, the opposition was split.

            In July 1992 in KHOROZ wassigned cease-fire agreement, but it was disrupted slaughter in the villagesSaripuli Kurgan-Tyubynskoyi region. After a while troops seized the town of NFKurgan-Tube.

            To resolve the conflict the warringparties through the mediation of Moscow sat down at the negotiating table. October 241992 Parliament Speaker S. Kandzhayev with his troops and went to Dushanbeseized power in the city.           Hewas supported insurgency and failed. At this time in Khujand was convened XVIsession of parliament which was elected parliament speaker Emomali Rakhmonov,who simultaneously headed the NF. NF opposition and made peace. Dushanbe, which was inhands of the opposition, the new government expected. Rakhmonov in Dushanbe went throughtanks. The opposition was crushed. Fights were bloody and accompanied byatrocities on both sides: killed over 20 thousand, 350 thousand were forced toemigrate to Afghanistan.

            The new government has banned all politicalpolitical parties except the Communist. Closed all opposition newspapers and magazines.The opposition has been declared punishable crimes.

            Having suffered defeat, the opposition was notweapons. The dominant position it occupied fundamentalists led by SyedAbdullah Nouri. After receiving the material and armed support from the Afghan government andsome Islamic countries, they launched a guerrilla war inTajikistan.

            The burden of combat troopslay opposition to Russian border guards, guarding the Tajik-Afghanborder. At the present day opposition groups turned into well-armed andtrained army that can deploy large scale action.

            The Tajik government, concluding thatignoring the opposition, he forced the country into a brutal civil war, which hasno chance to win, came in talks with the opposition, trying to simultaneouslylehimitatsiyi his regime. In 1995 elections were held, in whichRakhmonov received the victory. Rakhmonov could make a breakthrough on the diplomaticfront, he acknowledged some Islamic countries (Iran, Pakistan).

            Thus, in Tajikistanstruggle for power pro-won power, held on to powerlargely due to support from Moscow. Country of all time is on the vergecivil war. Riots, armed raid opposition, complete economic chaoshave become commonplace. Somewhat stabilized the situation in Tajikistan fallTaliban regime in neighboring Afghanistan. It supported the Taliban Islamicarmed opposition in Tajikistan.


7. Moldova

            Elected President of the RepublicMoldova Mircea Snyehur a way to create an independent state. However, someradical nationalists demanded the accession of Moldova to Romania. Such a prospectscary Russian and Ukrainian population live compactly on the left bankDniester, which once belonged to Ukraine and has been transferred to the Moldovaorder of the Kremlin. There is a major energy and industrial potentialMoldova. The population of Transdniestria fears forced Rumanization iffruition plans radical nationalists.

            Played on the emotions Transdniestrianssome pro-Russian policy. They artificially aggravate antymoldovski confidence inTransnistria, especially after the adoption of the language, requiring officialsstate of knowledge of the Moldovan language. In it the leaders of Transdniestriaturned heavily on which they began to form groups of armedGuards and contrast their Moldovan police.

            When the government tried to Chisinaurestore the legitimate authorities in Transnistria, guardsmen did resistance. Wasproclaimed Transdniester Moldovan Republic. Its leaders demandedChisinau recognition of their republic, and guarantees that in case of accessionMoldova Transnistria to Romania will be able to decide their fate. AttemptsMoldova's power to eliminate illegal republic led to serious violentbattles that lasted for spring and summer 1992 Killing over 600 people.

            In this situation, Russia, knowingpro-Russian sentiments in Transnistria used the 14-th army to dissolvewarring parties. Russian troops stopped the bloodshed, but remained onTransnistrian territory. In 1995 Snyehur has made an agreement withRussia on their withdrawal from the territory of the Moldovan state, and in 1997 bymediation of Russia and Ukraine signed an agreement on Transnistria.Moldova's territorial unity retained.

            Together with Transdniestrians againstentry to Romania was one of the ethnic groups in Moldova -Gagauzia. This small nation is divided by state border between Moldova andUkraine. During the Soviet Union this division does not impair him. Once indifferent independent states, Gagauz feared for their national integrity andtherefore started a movement for autonomy in Moldova.

            Termination of ethnic confrontation is notstop the political struggle within the leadership of Moldova. When newSnyehur presidential election was defeated and became the new president PeterLucinschi. In February 1999, exploded in the country's political crisis, which strengthenedinfluence of leftists, particularly Communists. In the next presidential electionwinner of their leader, Vladimir Voronin. The coming to power of the Communistswas relatively easy, but the issues that needed to solve themproved too difficult. Besides economic difficulties, the most painful forcountry is a problem I Transnistria. In addressing this issue, internationalintermediaries acting OSCE guarantor countries - Ukraine and Russia. Discussionsongoing process for several years rests in the question of State.MNR leaders advocate for federal system in the state, leaders of Moldova isdenied, insisting on the unitary structure.

            In 2003, in the settlement processTransnistria problem interfered U.S. and EU. Restricted from entry into itsarea 17 of Transnistria me. Increased pressure on Russia toaccelerated withdrawal of Part 14 Army.

            In the spring of 2004 in Moldovaagain more active political life, is connected with the approach of new elections.The distinguishing feature was the association of almost all anti-communist forces.


8. Uzbekistan

            Uzbekistan as well as other alliedrepublic gained independence in 1991 Among the newly established InternationalCentral Asia, Uzbekistan occupies a key position thanks to its naturalresources and developed the agricultural sector. At independence the countryavoided turmoil and civil war. When the former government wasCommunist party leader Karimov, who immediately changed his name to "Islam." 85%population professes Islam. Uzbekistan formally multiparty country. Together withthe ruling Democratic Party (former Communist), there are others. Specialamong them is the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, which the regimeactually driven underground.

            Islam Karimov has chosen for developmentstrategy combinations on one side - pro-Western orientation, the other secularauthoritarian regime. But the strategy has not yielded positive results forordinary citizens, most of whom live in poverty. Majoritynational wealth was just rozbazarena. This was a good foundationfor Islamic extremist movement headed by IMU. In 1999bombings occurred in Tashkent, to the country invaded GuerillasIslamists. The same was repeated in 2000 and Although the guerrilla movement couldsuppress, the situation remains difficult. Mode became more authoritariancharacter. In 2001, Uzbekistan has supported the U.S. anti-terrorist operationin Afghanistan, giving U.S. military base. It gave new impetus to the Islamists whohave accused Karimov that he "American stooge" in 2004took a new escalation of the situation rolled new explosions.


9. Turkmenistan

            Most hard mode afterindependence among the CIS countries vstanovyvsya in Turkmenistan. FormerCommunist party leader Saparmurat Niyazov of independence under the shell preserved oldtotalitarian order, involving the aid of Islam and Muslim clergy.Yes, Niyazov was proclaimed Turkmenbashi (father of Turkmen) and lifetimePresident (1999). Economic foundation of the regime of personal power areconsiderable natural wealth, including oil and gas deposits. Anotherrich countries is cotton. Enormous sums are spent on building palacesand praise the name of Turkmenbashi.


I wonder

            Name of President Niyazov in immortalizedname of the city, two areas of a ship, silhospnauk Academy, the names of streets,schools, collective farms (more than a thousand). In the center of Ashgabat was built 60-meterArch of Neutrality, 12 meters which fall during the gilded figure of the president.Arch once a day completely revolves around its axis. He is an MDPolitical and Economic Sciences, academician of the Academy of Sciences. His portrait showsin national currency - Manat. His profile is on Standbycoins. Niyazov also heads the executive and legislative powers are general Army.Head of Turkmen Muslims called it almost "the governor of Allah." Even hadattempt to submit his nomination for the title of Nobel laureate.


            However, Niyazov has not forgotten that withoutsupport of the people power can slip out of his hands. Niyazov said thattransform the country into Asian Switzerland. Chotyrymilyonnomu population wasgranted many benefits: it was exempted from paying tuition, gas,electricity and water.

In the middle of the countryalmost no opposition. And that was in existence, or arrested, or had toimmigrate.


10. Kazakhstan

            After independenceKazakhstan was in a difficult position: the country did not have any statetraditions, Kazakhs make up only 40% of the republic and the country strong pressureMoscow carries. In addition the country has no direct outlet to the oceans thatcomplicates its economic relations with the rest of the world. However, the country has anda number of positive factors: significant deposits of natural resources (oil, oreetc.), developed agriculture and industry.

Leaderindependent Kazakhstan was the former communist party leader, Nursultan Nazarbayev.At first Kazakhstan took part in almost all integration initiatives of Russia,an attempt to preserve its influence in the CIS, but soon Userthe country has realized its own state interests and began to actively defend them. Toserious clashes with Russia led the problem of borders, transportationKazakh oil and so on.

            The lack of democratic traditionsN. Nazarbayev allowed to strengthen his sole authority, fixing itslegislative. To form a new political elite failed to Nazarbayevimplementation of an ambitious project - building a new capital - Astana.


11. Kirghizia

            Kyrgyzstan became the Head of Staterepresentative democratic forces academician Askar Akayev. In its domestic policyhe tried to implement a course of market reforms, and externalheaded for rapprochement with the West and the USA. In the middle of the CIS pursuesdystantsionuvannya from Russia. However, as in other former Soviet republics,reforms carried out by trial and error. This led to falling livinglevel of the majority of population growth and discontent. To keepA. Akaev government has to resort to anti-democratic actions.


12. Belarus

            After independenceBelarus has found itself in a difficult economic situation. The country's economy is closelyHead correlated to suppliers from other republics, served asassembly plant. Almost without substantial economic resources, it facedthe threat of complete economic collapse. In addition, managementRepublic  revealed completeincompetence in carrying out market reforms. In such situations skillfullyusing demagoguery and playing to nostalgic feelings for the USSR, the authorities incountry comes Lukashenko. Dostupyvshys to power, he actuallyestablished in the country sole power prydushyvshy any opposition. Forgain sympathies saved much of social securitySoviet times, saved significant public sector. Privatization heldonly partially, the private sector is a small part in the economy.Through such actions could keep the economy collapse process, to avoid massunemployment. To keep the business in your state, Lukashenko has skillfully playedon demagogic statements about the integration with Russia. He has performed with anti-Western,antidemocratic statements. The Russian leadership, trying to keep Belarusunder his control, went to significant concessions in the economic sphere: were removedcustoms border, which allowed access of Belarusian goods to the Russian market;Instead of Belarus for Russian gas and oil at a much lower vidpuskalysyaprices than others and so on. However, when the issue of real integration,Belarusian-Russian relations began to worsen.


 13. Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia

            Often, these three countries unitecollectively - the Baltic States. However, these countries have different historical destinyinhabited by different peoples, which differ by language and culture. Objects for yednuyuchymthem is that part of the USSR are somewhat different from the rest of the Union andpopulation were strong desire for independence, willfully trampledStalin. Therefore, during the restructuring in these countries turned a mass movementindependence. They first came from the Union.

            After regaining independenceBaltic countries on the way to build a democratic society, integrationEuro-Atlantic structures. Thanks to scientific economic reformswas quickly overcome the economic crisis, created preconditions forsustained economic growth and reach European levels of development.Most difficult problems for the Baltic states became the Russian-speaking population,which at first was unwilling to accept the new realities. Backed by Russia, itopposed strict laws on citizenship in these republics, againstlanguage policy and more.

            Did not avoid the republic and the politicalbattles. Loudest political scandal broke out in 2003-2004 in Lithuania,which led to the impeachment of the president of the republic.

            Progress in implementing reforms gaveBaltic countries can apply for EU membership, held in2004



            The fate of countries that have emerged on the territoryformer USSR, 1991-2004 biennium composed differently. Thus the Baltic statesmanaged to successful economic and political reforms and in 2004 wereEU, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Tajikistan, Moldova experiencedwars and armed conflicts. The rest of the CIS, although escaped armedconfrontation, did not escape the acute struggle between supporters of democracy andauthoritarian methods of rule. Resistant steel aspirations of some statemanagers establish sole authority. Yes, it could be completed inTurkmenistan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Azerbaijaneven managed to transfer power from father to son.


Questions and tasks:

1.    Reason for the CIS was created? Is she played the role that ittrust?

2.    What were caused by inter-state and internal armed conflicts in manyCIS?

3.    Describe the economic development of Russia after gainingindependence.

4.    What are the causes of political crisis in Russia in 1993? As it wassolution is connected?

5.    What is the essence of the Chechen problem? What is its impact on Russia?

6.    What ended the Armenian-Azerbaijani war? Why exactly has been achievedsuch a result?

7.    In the recent history of independent Georgia there repeatedly flashedcivil wars that led to the actual collapse of the country and povertypopulation. What resulted is a way of Georgia?

8.    What does the "Rose Revolution" in Georgia's recent history?

9.    Describe the development of newly independent state in Central Asia.

10. Make a comparison chart: "The development of CIS and Baltic states



and Baltic

Key features

Economic Development

Political Development