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§ 21. Main features of Eastern Europe in the second half of the twentieth century. (textbook)

The Central and Eastern Europe


§ 21. Main features of Eastern Europe in the secondhalf of the twentieth century.


1. InstallationSoviet domination in Central and Eastern Europe

            As a result of victory over fascism inWorld War II in Eastern and Southeastern Europe has developed a newpolitical situation. The liberation of these countries was accompanied by restorationindependence or change of political regime, where it was kept. In allliberated countries confirmed universal suffrage and multiparty werecarried out agrarian reform, raids liquidated, nationalizedProperty collaborators and fascists. LAD, which became established in EasternEurope, called people's democracy. Peopledemocracy considered as a transitional society that rejectstotalitarianism and seeks democratic ideal. To power in these countries comeanti-fascist forces - communist, social democratic, radicalparty, in most people's united fronts. Significant role in people'sfronts played a communist party.


Creationnational (folk) fronts in Eastern Europe


Dates  formation of NF

The composition of NF  a period


1941 - People's Liberation Front

People's movement under the leadership of the Communist Party  Yugoslavia.


September 1942 -  Nationalistic, since 1945 - Democratic Front

People's movement, and since 1945 - Block  socio-political organizations under the leadership of the Communist Party of Albania.


August 1943 - Patriotic Front

Bulgarian Workers' Party, the Bulgarian  Workers' Social Democratic Party, the Bulgarian agricultural people  Union, a group of "chain".


January 1944 - National Front

Polish Workers' Party, Polish  Socialist Party (lion), the People's Party, the Democratic Party.


Autumn 1944 -  National Democratic Front

The Communist Party, Social Democratic  party, the Front of farmers, the Union of Patriots, the trade unions.


December 1944 - National Front  Independence

The Communist Party, Social Democratic  Party, the small farmers, the National Peasant Party,  Bourgeois-democratic parties, trade unions.


Spring 1945 - National Front

The Communist Party, Social Democratic  Party, National Socialist Party, the People's Party, Slovak  Democratic Party.

East Germany

July 1945 - Anti-fascist bloc  and Democratic parties

The Communist Party, Social Democratic Party,  Christian Democratic Union, Liberal Democratic Union.


            Dispensing with fascism and authoritarianregimes, the population of Eastern European life associated with democracyoffering variations on this general idea of social development. In theseunder the communists, who occupied the leftmost position in the political arena, haveattempt to connect the main principles of Marxism with the new political realities.

            As soon as solvednational tasks among members of the Popular Front coalitions rosecontradiction. This development was laid on the nature of democracy,which was not representative, and "democracy by consent."

            In the formation of representativedemocracy, the Soviet Union intervened. The Soviet army was on the territoryEastern Europe is significantly influenced by the political situation, providing a powerfulsupport pro-forces in those countries. Even where Communistsinitially had no advantage in Parliament (Poland, Hungary), thanks to the Sovietpressure they controlled the important post of interior ministers, statesecurity forces.

            While the communistssupport from the USSR and the right forces were discredited during the warcollaboration with fascism, centrist forces found themselves in a quandary.Western democracies refused to support them and they were chipped andCommunists conquered. When the cold war, is basedwon in straight position and pressure from Moscow, Communists and easily withoutbloodshed established its authority over the 1947-1948 biennium


Scheme: Mechanism of coming to power of communistparties in Eastern Europe

Activeparticipation in popular fronts and a coalition government. Initiation of broadof general and social reforms


Controlover the security ministries (interior, defense, etc.).


ControlMinistries of Economy and Internal Affairs.


Acquiredmajority governments.


Suppressionpolitical opposition.


Installationpower of communist parties.


            Once in power, the Communist Partystarted to build socialism. Accelerated the nationalization took placelarge and medium industries, carried out reprisals against the alliesCommunists in the Popular Front. In 1947, at a meeting of communist and workers'Parties Soviet leadership in the person of Zhdanov and Malenkov demanded"Fraternal parties" of full nationalization, liquidationcoalition governments, liberal and social democratic parties. The new body,formed at the meeting - Kominformbyuro - claimed to recognize the Sovietsample build socialism only possible.


The report Zhdanov at a meeting of representatives of communist parties inspring 1947

            "Since the resistance led by the newattempts of imperialist expansion is the Soviet Union, communist brotherhoodmust come from the fact that strengthening the political situation in their countries, theyboth interested  in strengtheningpower of the Soviet Union as the main pillar of democracy and socialism? Moscownever raised and does not want to put in a dependent position, NarochThis underscores the "independence" from Moscow, "repudiation" of Moscow, in factcase, means pleasing, adapt, pleasing those who believe Moscowenemy. "


            In Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia,Albania was eliminated multi. In Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland,Bulgaria various political parties become part of the communist-ledcoalitions. Plenitude of power was concentrated in the hands of the executive staff,virtually merged with the Communist Party apparatus. Soon there were local"Stalin". Thus, with democracy was finished, although theformally kept constitution, universal suffrage, regularElections were held. In the field of industrialization of the economy has begun andcollectivization. The market economy has been replaced planned. There was radicalchanging social structure. Missing class of entrepreneurs and largelyindependence of farmers. Most of the working population was engaged in apublic sector.

            Industrialization in these countries, asin the USSR, has preferred form of heavy industry. Due to herwere obtained exclusively through nationalization. Moreover, especially ininitial stage of industrialization, consumption of artificially prevented. Thus the Stategot the opportunity to accumulate funds and direct them to the industrialinvestment. USSR took over the supply of equipment, raw materials andenergy resources, training of specialists. Promoted agricultural industrializationovercrowding, unemployment, and to use female labor. Desirein many socialist countries to create a diversified heavy industryexceeded the real possibilities. Forcing industrialization entailedlimit consumption and falling living standards. This was one reasondiscontent and led to a political crisis 60 years.

            In 1949, for even closerBinding Eastern European countries to the USSR and of the acceleratedindustrialization created the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA).

            And in 1955, was designedmilitary-political union of socialist states - the WarsawTreaty (ATS). Thus was completed the camp of socialism. Fundamentalchanges took place in foreign policy in Eastern Europe. With sanitaryborder, they turned against the USSR in its satellites. Various manifestations of disobedienceUSSR were brutally suppressed. An example is the conflict Tito-Stalin.

            Such drastic changes have meant thatin Eastern Europe revolution took place that were inherentlysocialist, antidemocratic. Getting rid of the right totalitarian countriesEastern Europe came under the control of the left of totalitarianism.


2. Development and crisis of the totalitarian regimes in Central and Eastern Europe

            Stalin's death in March1953 had a significant impact on Eastern Europe. Releasefrom the constant fear revealed deep contradictions and totalitarian socialismmass discontent because it limits consumption, falling livinglevel of repression, etc. In East Germany, Poland and Hungary have the political crisis. Theircould not be overcome by retaining the existing system and applying pressure.Significant role in suppressing the population of performances played the Soviet troops whodirectly involved in the punitive operations (Berlin - 1953Hungary - 1956).

            Despite the suppression of statementsforce a change is made in the course of the communist parties that have eliminated the mainreasons for discontent:

- Stoppedmass repression and conducted a partial rehabilitation of their victims;

- Wasrevised pace of industrialization and methods;

- Softenedforms of cooperation, and in Poland they were stopped altogether;

- PartlyThe second method limits for small business.

            It was later carried out someeconomic reforms, some changes in relations with the USSR: the form theyacquired form equal.

Confrontation of the USSRChina and Romania and Albania have made use of for greater independence fromMoscow.

            All this took place against the backdrop of weakeningstrict administrative control over the economy, ideology, culture,testified to the beginning of a new period of development in Eastern Europe.

            The totalitarian regime was noteliminated, but only modified. He tried to provide features that would makeit attractive to people. The process of reform socialism hadstrict limits. At some point the question of political rights andeconomic freedom, private property, market relations. It threatened toCommunist monopoly on power. Having reached this limit, the Communist Partybecame the path of collapse of reforms which led to neostalinizmu. From this we canconclude that socialism is not subject to reform in principle.


Development of EasternEurope and Soviet policy in the 40 to 80 years of the twentieth century.

Stages  Development

Politics  USSR

Forms  protest

1944-1953 biennium - Ed imposed Soviet model  Development

1947 - Creation Kominform Bureau.

1949 - Creation of CMEA

Select Yugoslavia own path of development, the gap with the USSR  (1948)

1953-1964 biennium - Debunking Stalin and attempts  Update socialism

1955 - Creation of ATS.

1956 - Suppression of the uprising by Soviet troops  Hungary

1953 - Rise in Berlin.

1956 - Massive protests, strikes in Poland.

1956 - The Hungarian uprising.

1962 - Albania breaks relations with the USSR

1965-1987 biennium - Efforts of the USSR "conserve" the situation  Eastern Europe

The adoption of the doctrine of "real socialism" as a perfect  society that does not require updates ("Brezhnev doctrine"). Applied  doctrine of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and the threat of its use of  Poland (1981)

1967 - Romania demonstrative support of Israel.

1968 - Conversion attempt in Czechoslovakia to  "Socialism with a human face."

1980-1981 he - Massive anti-communist speeches in  Poland

1988-1990 he - Go to the Soviet policy of "new  political thought "

Retrieved from interfering in the affairs of Eastern Europe and the collapse  socialism

Democratic "velvet" revolution in Hungary, Poland,  Czechoslovakia, the popular uprising (revolution) in Romania (1989) Association  East Germany and West Germany, the disintegration of Yugoslavia.


            Go to neostalinizmu heldwithout major disasters. Only in Czechoslovakia it was made byintervention of the USSR and other socialist countries ("The doctrineBrezhnev "- the collective responsibility for the fate of socialism ineach country). It's for a while vidtyahnulo crisis of socialism in Eastern Europe.


Fromspeeches by Brezhnev at the gathering, V PORP (12 November 1968)

"Communist Party has alwaysthat every socialist country has identified the specific forms of developmenton the road to socialism with national characteristics? But wheninternal and external forces hostile to socialism try to manage developmentsocialist country and push it to restore the capitalist system whenthere is a serious  threat to allsocialist community, then it becomes not only a problem for the people of thiscountry, but the general issue, subject to disturbance of the socialistcountries.


            Helped establish neostalinizmuand "detente", which gave access to the countries of Eastern Europefinancial resources of the West Eastern European leaders sought to makecentralized updating of fixed assets to produce competitiveproducts. Implement succeeded only partially. Penetrate the markets of the Westturned out not afford, and when it came time to pay debts, they could not findlittle choice but to take new loans. External debt dramaticallyincreased. This forced the governments of Eastern Europe to take urgent measures:enlarged exports and restrict imports. This added to the global energycrisis. This has led to falling rates of economic development and the overalleconomic stagnation, stagnation. In the West at that time there was a shift topostindustrial, information society, started economicexaltation.


3.DemokratychniRevolution in Central and Eastern Europe (1989-1991 biennium)

            At the end of 80 years of totalitarianregimes in Eastern Europe have exhausted their opportunities for progress of society.The first symptoms of the crisis, which is approaching, its worsening economic situationand the emergence of new social problems. Soon there were traits inherent in the totalitarianSocialism - unemployment, inflation, falling living standards began to disappearthose previously associated with the conquest of socialism "-stability, solid price. Totalitarian system has reached the last argumentshis defense. Suppress and conceal the scale of the crisis has not been possible inforce greater openness of Eastern European countries, as well as a lackimportant strategic resources that could smooth the negative manifestations of the crisis.Mass discontent existing orders made ineffective the former systemControl of public consciousness, without which a totalitarian society can notexist.

            Attempts to suppress discontent by forcewere hopeless, so that in itself strengthen the repressive nature ofregime would not solve economic problems, but only vidtyahnulo process would falltotalitarian system. A striking example is the introduction of martial law inPoland, violent regimes in Romania and Albania.

            The crisis of the totalitarian regime in EasternEurope was total. This included economic, social, political andmoral crisis. For escalation of quantitative indicators (accumulationdissatisfaction) in quality (the change of social structure) needed a new carriersocial order. In a totalitarian system can be carriers of democratic ideasbe intellectuals (this is due to the specifics of her work, social status andetc.) and students, able to accept fresh ideas. But these twosegments of society with no economic basis for their actions and beingdependent on the same totalitarian state, unable to make socialrevolution. For social revolutions in Eastern Europe was neededexternal stimulus, which will reduce to a totalitarian state. This was the impetusrestructuring in the USSR.

            Restructuring contributed to the influencereformist elements in the Communist Party and discreditneostalinistskoho conservative leadership in these parties. She deniedEastern European nations fear the possibility of Soviet intervention.Gorbachev in relations with Eastern Europe declined from"Brezhnev doctrine" and recognized the right of the peoples of these countries themselveschoose the path of development.

            By its nature, the revolution inEastern Europe were democratic and antytotalitarnymy. In Romania andYugoslavia, the change of power took place peacefully.

            In almost all countries of Eventsunfolded with the coming to power of 'renewal of socialism "in the Communist Party (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania). Supporters"Update" at the first democratic elections were most ofwave of criticism of totalitarianism, communism, and communist parties. Once inpower, they performed the reforms that were not updated to socialism and toconstruction of capitalism: the privatization carried out the public sector,zaohochuvavsya business, created market structures. In the political sphereproclaimed pluralism and multiparty system.

            In foreign policy course has established itselfa radical reorientation to the West, the elimination of economicmutual aid and the Warsaw Pact (1991), breedingSoviet troops.

            Thus, the first took placechange of government, then under her pidvodylas appropriate political (liberaldemocracy), social and economic framework (creation of a socially orientedEconomy). In such a fast transition from totalitarianism to democracy iskeep up the political and social or economic structure of Eastsocieties. Moral much of the population was not prepared for life insociety where each for itself and the state no longer guarantees a relativelysustainable livelihoods.

            Difficulties revolutions largelywere caused by the mismatch of the political system of liberal principlesdemocracy. Inheritance economic situation has made the transition economyrail market pretty painful: The decline of production, inflation, reduction of socialstatus of a large number of citizens.

            At some stage the revolution occurredsituation where socialism has changed dissatisfaction dissatisfaction with democracy,which had not even show their positive features. Thus createdprerequisites for revenge leftists. But left-wing forces in Eastern Europeabandoning the dogmas of Marxism-Leninism, taking the democratic idealsmade it impossible to return to the old.

            Liberalization regimes in someEastern European countries led to the exacerbation of ethnic conflicts and howConsequently, the collapse of federations - Czechoslovakia (peacefully) and Yugoslaviawhich became the scene of ethnic conflict, mass deportations, ethnic cleansing,victims of which were over 3 million people (refugees, wounded, killed).

            Quadragenarian history of totalitarianism inEastern Europe is over. Totalitarianism was a temporary phenomenon, but itallowed to make a leap from backwardness to a relatively advanced industrialeconomy. However, to solve the problems of society, which he created, he could not.Countries totalitarian socialism far behind Western countries.

            The fall of totalitarianism in EasternEurope has created a unique situation in Europe - it becomes aonly political and legal space and civilization based on socialoriented market economy, liberal democracy and Europeanideas. It gave new impetus to European integration, NATO enlargement and EUEast. Revolution was another step towards becoming the integrity of the world.


Revolution in Eastern Europe(1989-1991 biennium)

Evolutionary  form conversion

Revolutionary  form conversion

Hungary. February 1989 -  plenum MSzMP - Disclaimer rukovodyaschoyi role of the Party in society. Spring 1989  The beginning of the round table. 1990 - parliamentary elections in  based multi-

Poland. February 1989 -  beginning of the round table meetings. Agreement on the principles of parliamentary  democracy.

"Velvet Revolution" - the achievement of revolutionary goals without bloodshed

Clashes with  by order

People  revolt

Civic  war, ethnic conflict, the intervention of external forces

GDR.  September-November 1989

Bulgaria.  November 1989

Czechoslovakia.  November-December 1989

Albania. 1990  was - a change of policy .. February was 19 991 - clashes with the forces of order.  Killed 4 people.

March 1991  by - multiparty elections

Romania.  December 1989 - shooting performance in Tymishoare population. 21-25 December 1989  was - the uprising in Bucharest. Killing 1104 people.

Yugoslavia. 1991  was - the collapse of Yugoslavia. 1991-2001 biennium - Civil  war and ethnic conflict.

Formation of new  independent states: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia,  Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (in 2003 transformed the state of Serbia and Montenegro.)

General  mechanism: mass performances of the population, elimination of the communist authorities  leadership, democratic elections.



            Completion of the Second World Warbrought the countries of Central and Eastern Europe exemptions  totalitarianism. After a brief periodpeople's democracy under pressure from the Soviet Union established a new totalitarian regime butcommunist type. Quadragenarian history of totalitarian countriesCentral and Eastern Europe on the one hand, contributed to rapid economicdevelopment of the region, on the other, the price paid for it appeared exorbitant. Infinally determined with a new gap in the development of leading countriesworld. Under load its own problems and external influences (Perestroika in the USSR andsubversion of the West) totalitarian regimes in Central andEastern Europe has been overthrown. Building a democratic society and marketeconomy proved a real challenge but successful.



1.    What is a "people's democracy"? What period of history in Central andEastern Europe is affected?

2.    When the Communists came to power in Central and Eastern Europe? Thatwas the decisive factor in establishing communist regimes?

3.    What are the components of building socialism in Central and Eastern Europe?

4.    Can events 40 or 50 years in Central and Eastern Europe can becalled a revolution?

5.    What are the causes of the crisis of socialism in Central and Eastern Europemid 50's?

6.    In countries where there were performances by separating the population against the existingCommunist regimes? Why they suffered defeat?

7.    Specify the main features poststalinizmu in Central and EasternEurope.

8.    What is the "Brezhnev Doctrine"? Why  she just appeared in 1968? Where it wasfirst successfully used?

9.    What features neostalinizmu in Central and Eastern Europe?

10. What are the main manifestations of the crisis of socialism in Central and EasternEurope in 80 years.

11. Why Gorbachev  waivedapplication of the "Brezhnev doctrine" in the late 80's - early 90-XXArt.?

12. From the results of forty years' yasuyte existence of the totalitarian regime countriesCentral and Eastern Europe.

13. What are the consequences of the fall of totalitarianism in Central and Eastern Europe?