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§ 27-28. Yugoslavia. New pivdennoslov Slavic states (textbook)

§27-28. Yugoslavia. New pivdennoslov Slavic states


1. InstallationCommunist regime in Yugoslavia

            Kingdom of Yugoslavia, becomingvictim of Nazi aggression, has turned a place where mass movement of resistance.Organizers spoke of his royal government, who emigrated to London andCommunist Party. Lead role in the guerrilla movement belonged to the communistsled by Josip Broz Tito (Croat by nationality. Participated inBolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917, the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939).In 1943 Tito's partisans controlled 1 / 3 of the country and amounted to320 thousand people. Partisans had to fight against the invaders,and Ante Pavelic against ustashiv who were more ruthless in hisattitude towards the Serbian population (carried out ethnic cleansing, createdconcentration camps, etc.).


Josip Broz Tito(Center) with his wife in Kiev. 1956


            Dominating position in the Communistresistance movement enabled them to establish their authority in the postwar period. In the electionsin the Constituent Assembly in November 1945 Communists got 90% votes. Itenabled them to form a one-party government and immigration officials to remove frompower. Yugoslavia was proclaimed a republic (November 29, 1945)

            The Communists immediately beganconstruction of socialism in the Soviet model of the inherent features:nationalization, collectivization, industrialization, mass repression. End1946 issued a law on the nationalization of all enterprises, exceptsmall industries and handicraft workshops. The Constitution adopted in January1946, provided for the expropriation of private property. In 1947public sector covered 90% of enterprises. Also started land reform(Confiscation of land holdings of those who collaborated with the occupiers, the Germans,subsequently abolished landlordism), rural cooperativesagriculture and industrialization.

            When the "Cold War"Yugoslavia was the first supported the Soviet Union, but at the same time and heldindependent policy affecting the Greek Communists, who raisedrebellion against the existing regime in Greece and also in establishing the Balkanfederation, the Communist old dream of the region. Attempts were made concrete steps toconclusion of economic union with Albania and Bulgaria.


2. Conflict "Tito- Stalin "

            The independence of the YugoslavStalin's leadership sparked outrage and eventually led to conflict andgap between the USSR and Yugoslavia. He offered not a greatfederation, in which Yugoslavia would have played a major role, and some smaller federations(Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Poland, Czechoslovakia) and demandedYugoslav leadership to coordinate its foreign policy with Moscow. 18March 1948 Soviet leadership to urgently recallits specialists from the country, arguing that what concerns them "unfriendly".In its response Tito rejected all accusations. Then March 27, 1948Tito was passed on 8 page letter, signed by Stalin and Molotov. Letterwas written in the tone of the acting rough and abusive. Yugoslav leadershipzvynuvachuvalos in "secret retreat from socialism, hostility toward the USSR."Guide KPYU rejected dictatorship and Stalin refused to participate in the meetingKominformbyuro. Stalin's second letter contained 25 pages. The tone wasanalogous to the previous list of charges was extended. ReplyYugoslav side was short, all sorts of accusations and rejected dictatorship.Third, Stalin's last letter was designed in this spirit and attitudeYugoslav side was qualified as "split and betrayal.

            In June 1948 Kominformbyuroadopted a resolution on the situation in KPYU "in which leaders of thisparties have been accused of retreat from Marxism-Leninism. Kominformbyurodemanded of Communists of Yugoslavia KPYU change leadership. "Healthyforces. "That was a direct interference in internal affairs.

            Communists of Yugoslavia supported Titoand in turn had a clean KPYU. 16 thousand "people like Moscow was detainedin the camp on islands in the Adriatic Sea (10 thousand of them died inquarries). 5 thousand people. were forced to emigrate from Yugoslavia.

            In Eastern Europe startedsearch for "agents of Tito and the show trials were held.Alleged that in Yugoslavia "anti-Communist police state regimeNazi-type "that" Tito clique has turned the American Center in Belgradeespionage and anti-communist propaganda. " The gap between Yugoslavia and the USSR wascomplete and final. There are indications that such scenarios considered and(Invasion of Soviet troops) Tito removal from power.


From the letter of the Central Committee of the Soviet leadership KPYU (April1948)

"? Should in itself to emphasize that we are terribly surprised tone and contentletter. We believe that there is no reason to read this letter. Accusations andpositions on specific issues - lack of understanding of our situation. How wouldany of us did not like the country of socialism - the Soviet Union, it can not in any caseless love their country, which also builds socialism.

? In your letter dated March 27, it follows that we are anti-Sovietcriticism, the rhetoric of the CPSU (b). It is alleged that such a critical actKPYU leaders that this criticism is behind the masses of party members. NamedDzhylasa names, Vukmanovycha, Kydrycha, Rankovycha. Thus, given namesseveral of the most famous and popular leaders of the new Yugoslavia, checked inmany difficult situations. ? It is very difficult to see how you can nominate the followingserious allegations and not direct their source. Even more strange lookComparison of our leaders with previous statements Trotsky. In a letterquoted some statements that allegedly took place, such as: "the CPSU (b)degenerate "," USSR economically trying to conquer Yugoslavia "," rule in the USSRgreat-power chauvinism. "

            We believe that based onunverified data is not correct to draw conclusions and making accusations againstpeople who have very large contribution towards the promotion of the USSR and Yugoslaviainvaluable contribution in the liberation war. ? These people can not act to"Undermining the Soviet system, because it would mean to betray their beliefs,its past. Nominate such people doubleface frightening and humiliating.

? In many Soviet people prevailing misconception, though sympathymasses of Yugoslavia to the Soviet Union have their own, based on sometraditions that have come, since the times of Tsarist Russia. It is not. LoveUSSR did not arise by itself, its hard to bare the weight of the party and the peoplecurrent leaders of the new Yugoslavia, including in the first place and those inletter so hard to blame.

? On the basis of what the letter states that our Party has noDemocracy? Perhaps, based on information Lavrentiev (Avt. - Ambassador of the USSR inYugoslavia)? Where did this information? We believe that the ambassador has no right orof whom require reports on the work of our Party - is not his right. Thisinformation can get CPSU (B) of the CC KPYU. ? We can not believe thatCPSU (B) would cast doubt on the merits and results achieved by our partytoday. We yatayemo memory that  issurvey repeatedly expressed not only many leaders of the USSR, but heStalin. At the same time we are on the position that the social changesYugoslavia have many specific traits. What can be usefully applied inrevolutionary development of other countries, and this is applicable. This does not mean thatwe throw a shadow on the role of the CPSU (b) on the social system in the USSR. Instead, westudy and take as an example of the Soviet system, but it is only aboutthat in our country we are building socialism in a slightly different kind. At thisstage, the specific conditions that exist in our country, taking into accountinternational situation, which happened after the Liberation War, we tryuse those forms of work for the building of socialism, which mostfit. We do this not to prove that our way is better than onehow goes the Soviet Union, we are not inventing something new and do whattells of life.

? USSR and Yugoslavia is vitally interested in establishing closer ties. Butthis requires absolute mutual confidence, without which there can be strongrelations between our two countries. The Soviet people, especially managers,must believe that the new Yugoslavia with its current leadership is firmlyto socialism! You must believe that the USSR has represented Yugoslavia in its currentleadership of a faithful friend and ally, ready in case of difficult challengesdivide good and evil with the peoples of the USSR.


A memoir by M. Dzhylasa, a member of the CC SKYU

            "Stalinpursued two goals. First - to conquer Yugoslavia and through it all Eastern Europe.And there was another option. If not go to Yugoslavia, then to conquer Eastern Europe withoutit. The second he went?

            Thisnever written, but I yatayu memory of trusting chains in EasternEurope - Poland, Romania and Hungary - has been a tendency to self-development?

            In1946 I was at the gathering, the Czechoslovak party in Prague. There Gotvaldsaid that the level of culture in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union are different. Hestressed that Czechoslovakia - industrially developed country and socialism in itwould evolve differently in a more civilized form, without the shocks thatwere in the Soviet Union, where industrialization is overpowered by very heavy periods. Gotvaldopposed collectivization in Czechoslovakia. In fact his views are not verydiffered from the others.

            Gottwaldlacked the character to deal with Stalin. But Tito was a strong man? Notmanaged to defend its position and Homultsi. At one meeting InformbureauHomulka spoke about the Polish way to socialism.

Demetrius also thought about self-development. "


3. Yugoslavmodel of socialism

            Finding himself temporarily in the internationalisolation, amid criticism started in the Stalin Tito dramatically altersinternal policy guidelines. Cooperations was discontinued, the land be turnedpeasants. Ceased the forced industrialization. In 1950, werereforms initiated under the "theory of government."

            The industrial system was introducedgovernment: the company passed to control workers' collectivetake any decisions that affect the enterprise, includingprofit-sharing and electing their representatives to public bodies. MarketRelations began to play a significant role in the economy, which wasoriented towards export. Yugoslavia also joined the "Marshall Plan"and received considerable assistance. Changes occurred in the political system. Wasattempt to avoid merging with the state party apparatus, whichformed of representatives of labor collectives. The idea to introduce a multi-was not accepted.

            Thanks to reforms, they continued tolate 60's, formed a special Yugoslav model of socialism, whichlong regarded as an alternative to Stalinism. But in fact it wastotalitarian system with a rigid one-party political regime, although moreopen to liberalized in the Congress of and exit. This outsideYugoslavia worked almost 1 million its citizens and the Adriatic coastcountry became a European resort.


Features of the Yugoslav model of socialism

One-party  system. Absolute authority and power J. B. Tito.

Self-government  labor collectives.

Distribution  functions of party and state apparatus.

Existence  small private property.

Private  ownership of land. Voluntary cooperation in the course.

Adjustable  market.

Orientation  production for export.

Liberal  regime in Congress and leaving the country.


            After Stalin's death Soviet newUser normalized relations with Yugoslavia. But they were built on other basesthan with other socialist countries. Yugoslavia was not a member of ATS and CEA.Instead, it has initiated a "Non-Aligned Movement. Itcondemned the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia (1968) and Afghanistan(1979-1988), but supported intervention in Hungary (1956).

CPSU in turncontinued to accuse the Communists in the Yugoslav revisionism, evenwas enshrined in the Programme of the CPSU (1961).

            Despite its peculiarities,Yugoslavia in the 70-80's encountered the same difficulties as othersocialist countries.

            Economic difficulties were causedabsence of a national market in the historically establisheddifferences between different regions of the country led to the closing of the republics inwithin its borders and self reliance. And it could not generatedifferences in views on  further waysof Yugoslavia.

            From the 70's, the rate of economicdevelopment is steadily decreasing. Unemployment rate has reached 1 million people.Approximately the same citizens were outside the state for temporaryjobs, mainly in Germany. Due countries reached 20 billion dollars.

            The deepening crisis also contributed to andpolitical system of Yugoslavia, which was based on the Constitution of 1974Decentralization of the economy, weakening the role of the party system and solving commonissues by mutual agreement contributed to the role of the republics andrespectively,  formation of localRepublican ethnic political elites. To fortify the unity of the state nothelped and the dominance of Serbs in state structures.

            Y.Broz-Tito, who served with1974 president and Chairman of the SFRY CC SKYU "without term limitsmandate "due to its vast authority and power are concentrated inhis hands, strengthened the unity of Yugoslavia.


4. CrisisYugoslav federation and its decay

            After Tito's death in 1980,place when the president took a collective body - the Bureau, which wasrepresented by each republic, the country increased centrifugal tendencies. Crisistotalitarian socialism in Yugoslavia adopted a form of ethnic conflict.The central government steadily lost control of the situation in the country. The impetusthe crisis of the Yugoslav federation began to events in Kosovo in 1981 AlbanianTop 80's accounted for 80% of the autonomous province, called for the provision ofland status of the republic. Albanians in Belgrade demonstrations were perceived asattempt to wrest land from Serbia and Albania to join. Albanian Demonstrationwere scattered military force, but since the region became a constant sourcevoltage. The relative order is maintained only in the land army and police.

            Events in Kosovo have led to the splitPublic opinion in the country and to intensify the political activity of the population.A wave of nationalism (velykoserbskoho, Croatian, Albanian, Slovenianetc.) swept the country.

            This shift took place in wavespublic consciousness and became the dominant view that the crisis can go throughformation of separate national states.

            The initiator of political activitywas the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences. What's in a special memorialaccused the communist regime in Yugoslavia in 45-year antyserbskiy policy.Restructuring that began in the USSR, also undermined the position of the Communists in Yugoslavia. Ina situation the Communist leader of Serbia's Slobodan Milosevic took alleffort to put his party in the role of chief defender of the Serbpopulation of Kosovo. He did it. In the wake of the late rise in popularity1988 Milosevic was able to change management in the Vojvodina, Montenegro,Bosnia and Herzegovina in their proxies. However, the attempt to do the same in Sloveniaended in complete failure. Slovenians were approved by a different opinions onfinal break with the federation.

            In addition to the national problemYugoslav authorities had to solve problems arising from deepeconomic crisis. At the end of 1985 amounted to 15% unemployment, inflation -100% (in 1989 - 3000%), external debt amounted to - 19 billion dollars.(1989 - 21 billion dollars).. In his service spent 40% of allforeign exchange income of the state. But at first instead of leadership Yugoslaviafundamental socio-economic reform program proposed"Stabilization", which certainly is not performed. After searching for ways out ofcrisis led to the necessity of the then economic, politicalreforms and reforms of the Union of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKYU).

            In December  1989 the country began holdingeconomic reforms, was authored by Mr. Markovic. The first item of which wasinflation and conversion dinar (currency) in convertiblecurrency, which was successfully done at the beginning of 1990 There couldreduce external debt to 16 mldr dollars. But the process of further economicreforms was interrupted by the collapse of Yugoslavia.


Reasons for the breakup of Yugoslavia







Economic crisis.  At the end of 1985 amounted to 15% unemployment, inflation - 100% (in  1989 - 3000%), external debt amounted to - 19 billion. (1989 -  21 billion dollars).. In his service uhodylo to 40% of total foreign exchange earnings  state.

Besides  about 1 million people. constantly traveled to work in Italy, Germany,  Austria.

Inability  collective leadership of the country to develop an effective management model.

Strengthening  Republican party and bureaucratic elites. Seeking the least  depend on the center.

SKYU crisis.

Ancient  national differences between peoples that inhabited Yugoslavia. Velykoserbskyy  chauvinism.

History  memory of mass killings of Serbs in Croatian ustashamy years of  World War II and more. Claims to the territory of Kosovo Albanians, which in average  centuries was the center of the Serbian state.


Irregularity  development of different regions of the state. The highest standard of living in Slovenia, naynyzhschyy  - In running and Macedonia.

Significant  social stratification of the population. Significant layer of the unemployed.

Fall  living standards in the second half of the crisis 80 years.

Slovenians,  Croats, Hungarians - Catholics, Serbs, Montenegrins, Macedonians part, part  Albanians - Orthodox, Bosnians, Albanians of - Muslims.

Among these  religions existed long conflict, misunderstanding and abuse.


            Since 1989 in all the republicsformed opposition parties, which feature was that they formedexclusively on a national basis. In the spring of 1990 elections in Slovenia andCroatia win the national coalition.

            Trying to XIV of the entrance SKYU (January1990), somehow fix was unsuccessful. The Serbs refusedreorganize the party on the federal beginnings as delegates insisted onSlovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Working with Congress was temporarily interrupted,which has not been  restored. SKYUdisintegrated. Republican organization moved to the nationalist position.Serbian Communists were imperialistic Serb chauvinists led byS. Milosevic.



            Slobodan Milosevic (b.1941) His family, originally from Montenegro. While still in school he showedsusceptibility to social work. At 18 he joined the SKYU. RapidMilosevic's ascent to the summit of power began in the 80 years of the twentieth century. Importantrole in the ascent to power of Slobodan played the leader of the Serbian CommunistsI. Stambolych middle generation. In 1987 Milosevic has made eliminationStambolycha himself became man in Serbia's number 1. He began the widely publicizedcompany to protect the Kosovo Serbs and obtained approval of the new Serbianconstitution in 1988 virtually abolished the autonomy of Kosovo. In1990 he changed the name of the Communist Party of Serbia to socialist.He played for the preservation rigidly centralized Yugoslav federation, and whendisintegration of the state was the fact that place, then did their best topreserve the unity of all Serbian lands. This was one reason for longethnic wars in former Yugoslavia. During the crisis showed liquidability to leave them with little loss and always kept the power topreservation of which was willing to sacrifice any how. But due to the "October"Revolution 2000 he lost power and was subsequently brought toresponsibility of the ICTY in The Hague. The long trial ofCurrently, not achieved any result. Milosevic here and showed their will andskills.


            The November 1990 elections gavepro victory (proserbskym) forces in Serbia and Montenegro, Bosnia andHerzegovina, and Macedonia.

            In response, Slovenia and Croatia, wherenationalists came to power, have accepted the new constitution and the expressed intentionwithdraw from the federation. In referendums in Slovenia (80% - for) and Croatia (95% -for) the vast majority of people favor independence. Alliedleadership, most of whom were Serbs, have lobbied for preservationunity at any price.

            After the decision of Slovenia(Leader M. Kuchen) and Croatia (led by F. Tudjman) withdrawal from the Yugoslav(June 1991), first in Slovenia and then began fighting in CroatiaFighting between troops of self republics and parts of the Yugoslav People's Army(JNA), which was given the order to ensure unity of Yugoslavia.


5. Interethnicconflicts and wars in the former Yugoslavia

            After the defeat of JNA in Sloveniathe fighting moved to Croatia, where local Serbs supported by JNAwere in arms and established their control over  territory where Serbs live compactly (11%population, 10% in Croatia) and is declared Republic of Serbian Krajinafrom the capital city kninska

            To stop the ethnic conflict andseparation of warring parties in the country entered the UN troops - Internationalpeacekeeping force. In the conflict decided to intervene and the European Union. Its membersin January 1992 decided to recognize all the new states that wished to leaveof Yugoslavia. After the international recognition of Croatia, Serbia automaticallybecame the aggressor, because its troops were on the territory of a sovereign state.Against Serbia were imposed international sanctions. Finally, Serbia withdrew itstroops from Croatia, but in the latter continued to be a nobodydeclared Republic of Serbian Krajina. In 1995, one hundred thousandth the Croatian Armyconducted a successful operation "Storm", which resulted in the RepublicSerbian Krajina was eliminated. 15 thousand Serbs were killed and 250 thousand wererefugees. In 1997 Croatia has achieved sovereignty through negotiations andover Eastern Slavonia, which was captured JNA in 1991

            April 27, 1992 Serbia andMontenegro proclaimed the establishment of a new state - the Federal RepublicYugoslavia. All other former Soviet republics became independent.

            But the tragedy in the Balkans iswaived. In March 1992 ethnic conflict broke out in Bosnia andHerzegovina (BIG). In this fledgling nation lived three ethnic-religiousgroups: Serbs (Orthodox), which accounted for 32.3% of the population, Croats (Catholics) -17% and Serbs and Croats, who professed Islam (43,7%) and were named"Bosnians". Serbian part of the population, led by Radovan Karadzic, wantedRunning for the accession of the FRY (Here they are January 15, 1992 proclaimed SerbianRepublic vice versa), the Muslim-led Aliyem Izytbehovychem - independence andunity vice versa (1 March 1992; March 10 was named vice versa United States and countriesEU), Croatia - areas of compact residence of accession to the CroatsCroatia. Trying to divide the republic resulted in a long war thatdistinguished brutality, ethnic cleansing, concentration camps.Using military advantage, the Serbs captured 70% of the territory Runs (Croatscontrolled 20%, Muslims - 10% of the running). Major fighting broke inNear the city of Sarajevo. All attempts of the international community to resolve the conflictpeaceful means of fighting back nashtovhuvalys Serbs. Even the introduction of troopsUN had to divide warring parties to ensure civiliansall necessary and thereby create favorable conditions for resolving the conflictsituation at the negotiating table, with no success.


I wonder

            In 1992-1993 he two failedinternational plans of settlement in Big. The first plan was formulated inOctober 1992 he called Vance-Owen plan for the names of twoChairpersons of the Geneva Conference on the Former Yugoslavia. Under this plananticipated division vice versa for 10 not connected to each other provinces, cantons (inthree for each community and one metropolitan).

            The second plan (summer-autumn1993) developed by D. Owen and one of the chairpersons of the Coordinating CouncilUN T. Stoltenberg. Under this plan, formally remained the only vice versa,sovereign, independent member of the UN, but it was divided into three nationalparts that each had to create that soft federation or confederation.

            Both of these plans remainunfulfilled. Since 1994 increased international intervention inconflict, in which the key role played by U.S. and NATO. Under pressure from the United States March 181994 and their leadership has been written constitution that proclaimedFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in which objects yednuvalysya territory controlled by Croatsand Muslims in general use is the formation was calledMuslim-Croat Federation (IHF). The next step of AmericanDiplomacy was the creation of an international contact group within the U.S.Germany, Britain, France and Russia. This third group developed a plan thatdealt with the territorial division between IHF and the Republic of Srpska inratio of 51% and 49%. Further contact group negotiations and the partiesvpyralysya conflict problems in disagreement with the proposed division. Mostdissenters were Muslims and Serbs.

            Finally, after much fighting,since 1995 U.S. and NATO have begun to act on coercion to peace.The result was the Dayton Agreement in 1995 (Initialed on November 21signed - December 14, 1995 in Paris).


            Then address the UN and NATO aircraftcontingent of UN troops launched a series of strikes on Serb positions, destroying theirmilitary equipment. As Serb retaliation was the seizure of their Srebrenitsa,which was protected by UN troops. Here, the Serbs had slaughtered Muslimpopulation (8 thousand people died.). Then NATO moved to take decisive actiondrive which has exploded in central Sarajevo market, killing 37 people.Responsibility for the explosion were assigned to Serbs. Under the guise of NATO air(30 August-September 1995, the NATO operation was called "Liberated force)Muslims and Croats went on the offensive and established control over 50% of theVice versa.

            Under the pressure of world publicconflicting parties back to the negotiating table. In Dayton (USA) on 15 December1995 concluded a preliminary agreement that finally was signed inParis. Under this agreement vice versa remained united, divided into Serbian(49%) and the Croat-Muslim (51%) parts for the joint existence of which wasdeveloped a system of relations. To implement the agreement and conduct of elections inauthorities introduced into the territory vice versa contingent of the multinational force (60ths.), composed of units and Ukrainian.

            It seemed the war in the Balkansexpired (after 4 years of war killed more than 200 thousand people., wounded -500 thousand, 3 million have become refugees.), But in February 1998 sharpenedconflict in Kosovo - the autonomous province of Serbia, whose autonomy was eliminated in1988 Albanians were the majority population have launched the struggle forindependence. In this conflict the world community sided with the Albanians. InMarch 1999 are united NATO forces launched operations against the FRY.Within 74 days of bombing and shelling the territory of the FRY was released30 thousand tons of explosives. Finally, management withdrew its troops from the FRYland and their place were put peacekeeping force. However, this ethnicconflict has not ended, he was only restrained by force. In the elections of 2001 inKosovo held elections, in which the victory of supporters of independence of the province.

            The new explosion of conflict in the Balkansbroke out in Macedonia (March 2001). Macedonia was the onlyrepublic of the FRY, which managed to avoid armed conflict between competitionindependence. But against the formation of Greece and Macedonia were Bulgariansfear of separatist movements by the Macedonians themselves. With PresidentBoris Trajkovski, who took a landmark on the West by U.S. and EU conflictwas overcome. To guarantee the existence of a new state on its territoryUN troops are located. But no international protection or moderate internalPolicy did not ensure peace of Macedonia. Albanian extremists (Albanians make upthird of the population), following the example of Kosovo and supportAlbanians began military operations against the Macedonian army in order to achieve recognitionby Albanians derzhavoutvoyuyuchu nation to provide autonomy to the preferred areasmajority Albanian population. Through the efforts of the international community, UNNATO parties back to the negotiating table. Albanian rights were expanded. Conflictmanaged to tame.

            Losses Serbian chauvinistic forcesethnic conflicts in the Balkans (Slovenia, Croatia, running, Kosovo) led tomass public speeches against the regime of President Milosevic of Serbia. Summer- In autumn 2000 the country's political crisis broke out, which was accompanieddeteriorating relations between Serbia and Montenegro. Last took a course onindependence. The reason for the escalation of political struggle wereElection of the President of Yugoslavia. The main contenders in the elections were SlobodanMilosevic and Kostunica Voislav. Under pressure from opposition to the constitutional court declaredKostunica's election victory. The new president was immediately beforemany problems: the collapse of the federation, rebuilding the country after the war with NATO, the pressureinternational community to give Milosevic the International Tribunal and others.

            Regarding relations with MontenegroAfter long negotiations an agreement was concluded on the transformationYugoslavia federation into confederation. On March 14, 2002 Yugoslaviaceased to exist. Three years later, a referendum should be held onthe fate of the confederation of Serbia and Montenegro. Because of reformsZoran Djindjic of the government (March 12, 2003 was shot throughrepresentatives from other criminal groups Belgrade) Serbia copeeconomic crisis. S. Milosevic in exchange for economic aid and U.S. statesThe EU was submitted to the International Tribunal in The Hague. In addition to the tribunal wastransferred, or come alone, yet a number of military and political figuresSerbia and Croatia.


War in former Yugoslavia


Conflicts, wars

26 June - 4  July 1991

Revolutionary War  independence of Slovenia. The fighting in Slovenia between the JNA forces and  Slovenian armed forces.

Midsummer 1991 - August 1995

Revolutionary War  Croatia. The fighting in Croatia between the JNA and Croatian forces armed  formations. 

Struggle  Croatia proclaimed in areas of compact residence of Serb Republic  Serbian countries (19 December 1991). Croatian army operation "Storm"  the annihilation of RSK (August 1995).

Spring  1992 - December 14, 1995

Civic  in big war between Serbian, Croatian and Muslim communities.  Under pressure from the UN and NATO sides sat at the table  negotiations. Dayton.

1988-1999 biennium  

Albanian-Serbian  conflict in Kosovo. Fighting Serb police and army against the Albanian  KLA troops.

March 24 - 10  June 1999

Operation Force  Serbia against NATO "Allied Force" to force her to accept the peace plan  settlement in Kosovo. Introduction to KFOR troops in Kosovo.

Spring-Autumn  2001

Civic  war in Macedonia. NATO operation to disarm ethnic Albanian rebels  (September 2001).



            The leading role of communists inliberation from Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia led to their victory in the fightfor power. The Communists immediately began to build socialism in the Sovietmodel with inherent features: nationalization, collectivization,industrialization, mass repression. However, conflicts Tito - Stalin led tochanges in development patterns. In 50 and 60 years in the country formed model"Self-governing socialism". With all its positive features it had and  one significant drawback: the whole systemremained at the absolute power and authority of Tito.

            After the death of Yugoslav leaderFederation found itself before the crisis that eventually led to the collapse of the country.But the formation of independent states in former Yugoslavia was accompanied byarmed confrontation between different ethnic groups that inhabited it.

            The conflict in former Yugoslaviabecame the most prolonged and bloodiest in Europe since the Second World War.Problems Yugoslavia are rooted in the distant past, but the main reasonconflict became more established after the First and Second World Warinjustice to the peoples of the South. While armed resistancehave ceased, and the problem remains the Balkans and nerozv execution. Theyremain "gunpowder cellar Europe.



1.    What caused the communists coming to power in Yugoslavia?

2.    When Yugoslavia became a republic?

3.    For example yaki carried out construction of socialism in Yugoslavia?

4.    Identify causes of conflict "Tito-Stalin." What charges have been leveledYugoslav leadership of Stalin?

5.    Why Tito managed to defend their position and not succumb to the pressure of Stalin?

6.    Identify the features of the Yugoslav model of socialism. What was dueformation of such a model? What are its positive and negative features?

7.    Specify features Tito regime in Yugoslavia.

8.    What are the causes of the crisis of the Yugoslav Federation?

9.    Whether you can avoid solving the power problem of Yugoslavia's dissolution?

10. What is the role of Milosevic in the events in the Balkans?

11. What played a decisive role in ending the armed conflict in the Balkans?

12. Can I claim that the Balkans problem solving is correlated?