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§ 30. Minoan (Cretan) civilization Palace (textbook)

§ 30. Minoan (Cretan) civilization Palace

1. Transfers on the ancient history of Greece

Sourcesthat inspired scientists in search of early civilization in Crete wereAncient Greek legends and myths. Behind them, in Crete, in the mountain cave DyktaBorn chief god of the Greeks - Zeus. His mother Rayfled here, saving the baby from the murderous Kronos,poyidav that their children, seeing in them a threat to his power from heaven. AnotherMyth has it that it brought to Crete by Zeus daughter Phoenician king of Europe, inyou love. Here she gave birth to a grand son of the god of Minos, king of the FutureCrete. But Minos prohnivyv gods, and they punished his birthson-monster. His name was Minotaur, and he lived in a largePalace-maze, which he built in Crete master Daedalus.No death, hitting the net in corridors, could not get out of it. Everynine years subject to Minos sent people to the most beautiful islandboys and girls who had become prey to the monster. OnceGreek hero Taiz Eheya,Once on the island, had to meet in a duel with the Minotaur. Himmanaged by a thread, which gave him the daughter of Minos Ariadne. find a way outmaze and defeat the monster.

On Crete,It tells the legend master Daedalus and his sonIcarus was embodied in a man's dream life a long fly to the sky.

Creteanother Greek hero - Hercules - subdued terrible bull, completingone of his twelve feats.


Terms and Notions

Hero - Demigod, a descendant of gods and mortal men, calledthe will of the gods on earth among people.


2. Archeological discoveries Minoan(Palace) of civilization. Minos Palace

Scientificstudy of the island of Crete began in XX century. In 1900 herearrived. Arthur John Evans (1860-1941 biennium). After several weeks of excavation, he surprisedhumanity discovery of ruins of buildings, the area which reached 2.5 ha. Itwas the royal palace, where possible, and lived mythical Minotaur - son of CreteKing Minos.

Inpast majestic building had many rooms and pantries, which z'yednuvalysya corridorsand stairs, a total of 1 500 to 2 500 different facilities. There werewater supply, drainage and ventilation. The total area of the palace reached 16 thousand m2.Premises located so that a person who was not aware of their plan,could easily get lost.

OnUnlike the palaces of Assyrian and Babylonian kings, not Cretan palace vidhorodzhuvavsyacity of high walls, for which he could not get a simple mortal, and wascontinuation of the city and even wondered about it. In many areas did notwindows. Instead, there was an elaborate system of holes, through whichlit room. It is considered one of the brilliant achievements of ancientengineers.

Amazed andinterior decoration of the palace. In one of the buildings along the walls were stonebench and throne of the ancient rulers of the island. On a high back throne depictedgriffins and flower stems and papyrus. The room was painted in redcolor. The walls were covered with magnificent frescoes. Cretan master, as well as the Egyptianand Indian, possessed the secrets of making paints that do not lose brightnesstheir colors today. Partly Evans restavruvavmated room. In this form it is preserved to this day.

Excavationon the island confirmed the existence of one of the oldest civilizations in theGreece. She became known as Minoan - Byname of the king Minos. A palace it was called by that palace, which was not onlycenter of power of kings and a center of economic life, testifiedfairly high level of the ancient state.

Findingsallow archaeologists to assume that MinoanCivilization did not know war, because painting is not glorified leaders, militaryart, victory in battles. Instead, artists were talking about picturesquiet and peaceful life. His favorite themes were artists: the sea, pickingharvest, human beauty. But often depicted as a bull. This image comes infrescoes, sculptures, jewelry, ceramics.


3. Prosperity and decline Minoancivilization

Possessedlife of the population of the island provided by nature. Warm Fit forAgriculture climate enabled to grow cereals, grapes, olives. In the seathere were many fish and other seafood. Most of the people of Crete werefarmers, herders and fishermen. They cultivated the land, bred cattle,settled the vast expanses of the Mediterranean Sea. Island famous for itsartisans. They skillfully treated wood, stone, bronze, iron, preciousmetals, known potter's wheel and weaving. All this contributed to the origin Minoan civilization.



Homer on the island of Crete

Island of Crete in the middle vynotsvitnoho Seawonderful, generous, from everywhere to embrace the waters rich people. There ninetyThey inhabit large cities.


Inquiries to document

What, according toauthor, was the wealth of the island of Crete?


Minoan civilizations were on the verge of IV-III thousand BC(Over 5000 years ago). The population of the island for unknown reasonshas soared. On the east coast there were some villages which graduallybecome a city. Over time they became the first European city-states.End III thousand BCon Crete were built the first palaces.

Mostpowerful city-state was Cnossen. From it through the whole island wide paved road.At the same time began to build Palace maze. He was a special place forinhabitants of the island. There were the coronation of kings and the consecration of priests, therehuman sacrifices deities arranged fight with the bulls, whichreminiscent of Spanish bullfighting. Somewhat smaller palaces were built in Festus, Hurniyi and other citiesCrete. Gradually the city-states united around Cnossen.Crete formed the only state in which ruled supreme knosskyy king. He once was the supreme priest.

Indicationcivilization of the inhabitants of the island was writing. During the excavations of the palaces foundone thousand tablets from ancient inscriptions. Originally Cretans, like other ancient peoples,written characters. An example of such writing is Festskyydisc, made of clay. On its two sides embossed242 characters, which still not deciphered. Later there were two kinds of writing, theirScientists called linear writing "A» (XVIII century BC.) and "B"(XIV century BC.). The first and left nerozshyfrovanym thoughproven that this business documents.


I wonder

Linear B in depthnyanyh plates rozshyfruShaftsBritish M.Ventrys (Specialist in the Army shyfRowe) and Dzh.Chedvikin 1952 It had 88 signsneredavaly warehouses, including one vowel sound.


RulersCrete had a powerful fleet. Cretan ships controlled the maritime areareliably protecting the island. Availability of Navy created the conditions for safetrade, prosperity, enrichment and the strengthening of the kingdom of Crete.Residents of Crete settled in the Balkans and the Mediterranean islands. Blossom Minoan palatial civilization came in mid thousand IIBC Cretan State did not yield to Babylon and Egypt andconsidered one of the strongest countries in the world.

Butsomething mysterious happened - at the same time turned into ruins Cnossen, Festus, Hurniyaand other cities. All efforts created the inhabitants of the island for centuries,ceased to exist in a very short time. Civilization in Cretedisappeared around 1400 BC Perhaps the cause of death Minoan palace civilization was an earthquake orvolcanic eruption, or perhaps a terrible invasion of enemies. Scientists and still haveanswers to this question.

Arthur Evans believed that the death of civilization caused by naturaldisaster, because during excavation Knosskohopalace, he found many signs of sudden death: an unfinished craft products,abandoned in fields and other tools. According Evans,was so powerful earthquake that reviving civilization afterwas impossible. For 100 kmnorth of Crete is a small island Santorini (Tera). Here, according to geologists, and waseruption of a terrible explosion that destroyed a portion of the island andraised a huge wave - a tsunami. Possibly, it destroyed the Cretan navy andcaused death Minoan civilization.


Questions and Tasks

1. Whowhen created a Minoan civilization?

2. WhatFeatures Minoan civilization?

3. Namedesign features Minoan Palace.

4. Thatwas the basis of power Minoan kings?

5. Namethe heyday and decline of a civilization of the island of Crete.

6. Whatprobable causes of death Minoan civilization?