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§ 9. Christian Church in the V-XI. First Crusade (textbook)

§ 9. Christian Church in V-XI. First Xrestovий Pohід

You know

1.      What was representation of the person of God in the Middle Ages?

2.      That represented a Christian church in the early Middle Ages?

3.      As took place Christianization of Europe?

4.      Why only Christian church split into the Western (Catholic) and Eastern (Orthodox)?

5.      What made Europe to move in crusades?


1. Medieval man and God

Religion and Church in the Middle Ages played great, even to say the lead. People even in the head come no idea that there is no god. All human life, her consciousness was permeated with faith. Human imagination of medieval Europe about God and man in the world Throughout many centuries formed the basis of Christianity. According to Christian representations of man created by God. God gave man the special qualities: the soul. Mind, language, feelings, beauty and strength. Very nature, living things were created by God for man. But the first people - Adam and Eve - osluhalysya God completing a sin - the first, or original. They were expelled from Paradise. Man is mortal, weak, unhappy. The soul of every human suffering, imprisoned for`prisoners t sinful flesh.

Good quality, sense, concessions people nazyaly - dobrodetelyamy, stupid - vices or sins. Three "D" were considered most important: faith, hope and charity. D     man kept faith in God, hope for him. Love for God and people. He must come to terms with everything, to repent, to example in all of Christ.

Enemy of his were the seven "deadly sins: pride, zavist, anger, laziness, greed, rostochytelstvo, chrevouhodiye. These sins of a man pushed to the lies and all sorts of crimes.

All the believers were to come to Priest in confession. The ideal man was a medieval ascetic (the one that brings a d. ..). All these names of people who for the love of God would abandon all the pleasures, wealth, family.

People believed that after death the soul can or go to hell or in paradise. All very afraid of Hell. In the West also gradually notion of purgatory - where the soul can be cleansed of sin and small go to heaven.

Medieval man believed that a created by God and therefore all life passed by the church bell. Sam countdown was conducted on the birth of Christ.


2. Christian Church in І VІ Art.

Since the 313 And by the emperor Constantine Big allowed Christians to practice their faith openly, and to the point when the defunct Roman Empire, Christian Church turned into a powerful organization that could not destroy the barbaric invasion. On the contrary, it is the Christian church "tamed" barbarians. The authority of the Bishop of Rome increasing gradually. This was explained by the fact that people of that time Rome was the center свitu. Bishop of Rome was called as High priest of ancient Rome, great outbursts (Pontifex maximus) or "father of the church" (Pope).

The first The Bishop of Rome was considered one of the closest disciples of Jesus Christ - St Peter, because all the Pope of Rome considered themselves successors of the apostle. Decussated gold and silver keys of St Peter became the first symbol papal authority. Another symbol is the tiara - Chief ubiр, that his dad wears during the celebrations. The basis of the papal tiara is a miter - special high cap. Its пrykrashayut three crowns, which explain the meaning differently. One explanation is that they symbolize the triple power of the pope: the bishop of Rome, Pastor Christian Church and chairman of the Papal States. Official Title Pope is now: Bishop of Rome, vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor Chairman of the apostles, the high priest of the universal (Catholic) Church, Patriarcharchitect West, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, the monarch of the Vatican State. The symbols of the episcopal authorityв is miter, Rings and special staff.

На first church Cathedral325 в Roman bishop of Nicaea recognizedsingle patriarch (head) of the church in the West. In the East Christian Church headed the four patriarchs: Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. It was at the insistence of the Council of Nicea Roman Bishop Arianism recognized heresy - "Aberration" indented Biд Christian doctrine, and those who supported the heretical views, called heretics.

Arianism emerged as Publish pressihiynyy direction in a Christian church in IV - V century. It has gained widespread mainly in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, and among the barbarians - Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals, burhundiv et al. Founded Arianism priest Arius of Alexandria. Biн claimed that Christ, the Son of God, Did not exist age, and is only the first of the creatures created by God. It objected to one of the most important dogmas of Christianity. Arius also defended the rights of priests, advocated рivnist all ecclesiastics, against the authority of bishops over them. In IV Art. Arianism was prohibited by Emperor Theodosius.

At the Council of Nicea started, and Constantinople (381) finished constitute the basic provisions (tenets) of Christianity - Symbol Faith. Among рiznyh descriptions of the life of Jesus Christ were deemed correct (canonical), only four - Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. These acts, along with the Gospel Apostles, Epistles and Оb'yavlennyam Apostle John made a new covenant. It was a continuation of the Old Testament - the collection of ancient sacred texts common to Christians and Jews. Together Old і New Testament were Christian BibleOr Scripture.

Scheme. Christian Organization Church in the West and East

Christian   church








"The Ecumenical Patriarcharchitect"Constantinople































Christian clergy divided into two groups: Black and White. To parish clergy, which had to carry the service through people in the world, belonged deacons, priests, bishops and patriarchs. Deacons helped make church services priests. Priests bearing members of the Christian faith parish до comprising several villages or quarters city. Parishioners pay special tax maintenance of the church - tithing (Tenth of all their profits). Some church parishes united in episcopacy, led by Bishop. The episcopal united in architectiyepyskopstva. In the East architectiyepyskopstva called Metropolis, and their heads - metropolitans. In the West, bishops пidporyadkovuvalysya Rome Pope - Bishop of Rome. In the East, united in Metropolis four patriarchates with centers in Antioch, Jerusalem, Constantinople and Alexandria. Of the four Patriarchateв Most East influential was Constantinople, which demanded that it was called "Ecumenical Patriarchate". This caused a dispute between him and Pope, who also defended the right of superiority over all Christians.

The meaning and impact of the Christian church in state affairs and social life of West and East were рiznymy. In the West Christian Church tried to replace demolished public Barbarians structure and in the East it was part of a mechanism Statemanagement. Рiznylosya also the clergy: West significantly inferior erudition east.

A separate large group of Christian clergy have been monasticism, or black clergy.

Monasticism was born in the East, in Egypt. Its founder, St. Anthony, held in 1921 рIC hermit in Egyptian desert. During one of his trips he saw in the desert Angel of God, who worked, prayed and then worked again. "Do as I - Said Biн Anthony - and you vryatuyeshsya. Anthony became do so як angel commanded. To him they came, who heard of his holiness, and settled nearby. So one of the first monastic communities. The founder of Western monasticism believe St. Benedict, who lived у firstsecond half VI Art. He, for example Eastern monks, made for western monks arose - the rules of life, based on also work and prayer.

The monks refused to Biд secular life, which prevented focus on prayer, and settled separately from other people - in the mountains, deserts or forests. When the monks settled along with human homes, for example, in the cities, they were separated Biдothers high walls and formed the community - monastery. On West large monasteries began to call Abbey (And their leaders - Abbe); East - laurels. In early medieval monasteries became centers Christian culture and education. In IV - VI century., when destroyed old and disappeared свIT Christian church gradually become a powerful force that became one of the foundations of a new European civilization.


3. Christianization of Europe

At the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire most of its population were Christians. Preaching Christianity to be a success among savage tribes. So Christianity accepted the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, and others. However, in the form Arianism.

Only Franc baptized by the Western Roman model. With support Franconian kings of the Roman Church gained strength and finally confirmed by West. Charlemagne legalized gathering in favor of church tithes.

Important role in the Christianization of Europe has also played an itinerant Irish monks. Monks created Stunning beauty illuminated manuscripts Publish pressihiynoho and social content. His appointment they saw is not only to store, а й disseminate knowledge. On small boats with precious books monks sailed to distant shores of Europe, bearing the word of God to the barbarians, founded monasteries and workshops to create books.


Resident monk-hermit. Ireland, V century.


Пince British conquest of the Irish monks were Anglo-Saxons convert to Christianity. They christened the northern part of the country and sought to extend its activities to other areas, but they lacked the energy to cover all Britain. After Pope took over the whole missionary activities among the savage tribes.


Page Irish Gospel VIII century.


With a bang Christianization of Europe began in VIII. and lasted for the next two centuries. To Christianity and joined Constantinople. Yes, thanks to the preachers of Cyril and Methodius in IX. Christianity spread among Bulgarians, Serbs and Velykomoravsku state, and later to Russia. In turn sfoyu Rome extended its influence to the Poles, Czechs, Hungarian, Scandinavian nations.


Baptism Bulgarian King Boris. IX.


Occurrence and the spread of Christianity


Christian Church in Europe VI-XIIIArt.


4. Klyuniyskyy movement. Schism 1054

From the time when the Short Pepin gave the Pope lands in Italy wealth of the church have increased significantly. However, its influence on the Hebrewsopeyski case was quite negligible. Church depended on the secular rulers. As the church office provided great benefits, Duke and graphsprovide them with your family and friends. Clergy as свidchyly contemporaries, much more focused on augmenting their wealth than salvation of souls of believers. In the environment of the church was so much dissatisfied state of affairs. Naysvidomishymy there were monks of Cluny Abbey, which was located in eastern France. They earned the respect his asceticism and desire to change church life. Klyuniytsi, including required: free church Biд subordination secular authorities, to establish strict discipline for all clergy - from monks to the Pope.

Klyuniyskyy movement, as its called, gradually spread. Some klyuniyskyh of monks became bishops, Abbe and began direct order in church life. Finally one of the them became Pope Gregory VII. He launched the struggle for the implementation klyuniytsiv 'ideas. During the 1073-1085 biennium it was held the following reforms:

·        Established a new procedure for electing popes conclave - a collection of cardinals (senior clergymen of the Catholic Church) that excluded the possibility of interference in elections свitskyh people:

·        I made celibacy - ban marriage for spiritual people. He thus provided the security of land possessions of the church, which still some clergy tried to leave a legacy to their children;

·        Cancel investiture - the right of the emperor or king approve spiritual people for church office;

·        The prohibition of simony - the sale and pileвлand Church positions.

In their quest to consolidate power Papacy Gregory VII met opposition secular government. In the story became Gregory VII and meet the German Emperor Henry IV. This long and exhausting struggle that had variable success, although it ended Pope's death. But the reforms undertaken Gregory VII laid pidvaleny power of the papacy in the next century.

Another important event in the life Christian churches occurred in the XI Art. Disputes between Christianity West and East in 1054 results into Eli schism (Translated from davnohrets. - Crack, split). Pope and Patriarch of Constantinoplearchitect damned by one another. Since then, the only Christian church shared by Roman Catholic and Orthodox. The word "catholic" means universal and "orthodox" - true, true.

Main differences between Catholic and Orthodox churches

In dogma Faith • teaching about the presidency of the pope and his infallibility Orthodoxy is not recognized;

                                            • the use of indulgences (release Biд sins for charge) Orthodoxy rejects;

                                            • Orthodoxy recognizes only the existence of hell and heaven and proclaims Catholicism existence as purgatory (transition state мIJ hell and paradise).

In rituals            • Catholic baptism perform ablution, and Orthodox - immersion у water, chrism in Catholic Bishop and only provides only on adults;

                                 • the Catholics in Saturday пHistory;

                                 • in Orthodox icons are in no Catholicsє, they - painting;

In Management   • denied Catholic lay people to read Бibliyu;

church               • existence of the post of cardinal у Catholics;

                                 • celibacy (Prohibition of marriage) у Catholics from IX Art. In Orthodox monasticism is divided into white (Married) and black (single);


In customs             • seating in the Catholic Church;

                                 • implementation worship only in Latin у Catholics and use calls for attention to address the most important place of preaching.

5. Reasons for the Crusades. First Cross march

Crusades unusual phenomenon in history Medieval Europe. The Crusades - A military expedition, which organized the Western Christian world against Muslims. Their goal was conquest of Jerusalem and Palestine. Total of 1095 to 1291 was carried out eight crusades to the Holy Land. Later the name "crusades" were used to Publish pressihiynyh wars that led the Catholic Church to protect and spread Christianity.

          For To understand why the crusades started, you need to see, What was the Christian world at the end of XI century. The Catholic Church through reforms of Pope Gregory VII much stronger and had a great impact on European affairs. The call that was heard from Rome by the Pope, was considered mandatory for all Catholics.

European chivalry was in very difficult situation. Right majorat(Superiority in inheritance) caused what feudal estate succeeded only his elder son and younger had the same look for a livelihood. Landless knight, who robbed and held on the bloody war with weaker neighbors, have become a real disaster. Free land at this time in Europe there was, and was believed to work or trade for knight shame.

For seven years, European countries suffered from famine, epidemics of cholera and other diseases. The list of unusually severe winter and Flood 1089-1094 biennium Began to spread rumors about the approaching end of the world. All waited for God's punishment for their sins and were ready to atone for their pilgrimage to the Holy Land or otherwise be saved by faith feat. Pilgrims that returning from Jerusalem, where the Holy Sepulcher, talked about persecution of Christians by the Turks-Seljuks. From these messages idea special pilgrimage - the war for the liberation of Christ and the Holy Sepulchre from the superiority infidels.


Temple Sepulchre in Jerusalem


Situation arisen in the east end of XI century. was favorable for intervention powers of Western Europe. The Byzantine Empire was going through difficult times. As a result of attacks of Turks Seljuks, they lost their possessions in Asia Minor. Constant attacks Seljuks made dangerous ways in which moved Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land. Byzantine emperor Alexios I Comnenus appealed for help to the Pope.

Call the emperor heard. November 27 1095 pivdennofrantsuzkomu unit can display in Clermont was great council. In the end, Pope Urban II made a speech to large crowd of peasants, knights and townspeople who had gathered in the street.

He encouraged everyone to march to the East for the sake of liberation Palestine from the rule of infidels and Christians to return to the Lord's Tomb. All liberators of the Holy Land, Pope promised the remission of sins. "Let Henceforth the soldiers of Christ - said Urban II - those who were previously robbers. Let the true battle of the barbarians who previously fought against the brothers and relatives. In addition, the pope mentioned the rich spoils of what awaits East.


Pope Urban II calls for a crusade. Miniature


The main reasons and Drive Crusades




The desire to extend the Catholic Church   its influence to the East, liberate the Holy Land from the Turkish Seljuks, increase   profit church


Kings and nobles hoped to find higher   new ownership and subjects


Small Knights hoped to gain   wealth and land ownership


Peasants sought freedom   and land

Merchants   hoping for enrichment through new trade links with   East



Religious exaltation and hope   gain atonement for all their transgressions in part in the liberation of the Holy Land




Speech by Pope Urban II in   Clermont calling for the liberation of the Holy Land from the rule of infidels


"So God wants" - the crowd repeated the words of the papal. Їх spread all Europe preachers. Began пidhotuvannya to hike. In France, Germany, Italy nashyvaly people to свii clothing crosses, calling themselves pilgrims, and his trip - a pilgrimage or sacred way. Pilgrimage - Journey to the believers мists, that marked a special holiness. The name originated from the custom of pilgrims from Palestine to bring palm branches.

Only much пiznishe these campaigns to Holy Land had the name of cross, and their members began to call crusaders.

The Crusades 1096-1291 biennium



1096-1099 biennium

First Crusade. Taking   Crusaders Ahtiohiyi, Edessa, and Jerusalem. The emergence of the Crusaders   East

1147-1149 biennium

Second Crusade. Headed   French King Louis VII and the German Emperor Conrad III. Ended   after unsuccessful siege of Damascus

1189-1191 biennium

Third Cross   hike. Hike the "Three Monarchs": German emperor   Frederick I, King of France Philip II Augustus and King   Richard I of England. Ended in defeat after the death of Frederick I

1202-1204 biennium

Fourth Crusade. Taking   crusaders and the foundation of Constantinople Latin Empire

1217-1221 biennium

Fifth Crusade to Egypt.   Ended in the defeat of the Crusaders Dam'yeti

1228-1229 biennium

Sixth Crusade. Headed   German emperor Frederick II. Finalized agreement with Emperor Sultan   on the free visiting Christian holy sites over 10 years

1248-1254 biennium

Seventh Crusade to Egypt.   He headed the French King Louis IX Saint. Ended in defeat   crusaders and capturing the king in exile


Eighth Crusade to Tunisia.   He headed the French King Louis IX Saint. After landing in Tunisia   among the Crusaders broke plague from which he died and the king himself


The first were made to march thousands of ordinary people. It was a big crowd armed with scythes, pitchforks and just sticks, most of whom were peasants women and children, were commoners and small knights. The path of pilgrims led by Peter the hermit monk and landless knights Walter Stark naked, ran through Hungary and Bulgaria, where, without supplies and equipment, "Crusaders" robbed local residents and organized Jewish pogroms. When August 1096 it was "Warriors" came to Constantinople, the Emperor Alex І Flat is cleaned regularyetc. hastened to smuggle it through the Bosporus to Asia Minor. There, most of them killed пid arrows Turkish Seljuks.

Major forces Crusaders, consisting of four knightly armies went hiking later. Duke of Lower Lorraine Army Gottfried Bulyonskoho also moved Hungary and Bulgaria. From ПItaly moved ivdennoyi Norman troops led by Prince Boemundom Tarentskym. The largest group Crusaders вs from the South of France Count of Toulouse Raimund Finally, the last part of the Crusaders Duke led by Robert Norman, moved from Northern France. In general crusader troops numbered about 4 thousand knights and 25 thousand troops.

Although theCrusaders were not the only leadership, but knights were well armed and were able to fight. To пidhotuvatysya to hike, many of them have sold their property or pozakladaly. Care of the family at the time their absence took over the church.

Spring 1097 , the crusader army gathered at стetc. Constantinople.

By order of Alexei and the Crusaders turn have forwarded Comnenus Asia Minor. In June they captured Nicaea and Departedfurther. A decisive battle took place near the valley Doryleyi July 4, 1097 p., where full Seljuks were defeated. Road to the east was open.

Пince the grave across the mountain plateau under the hot sun Crusaders came to Antioch, whom they called "the capital of the East. Seven мisyatsiv long siege fortress. Crusaders suffered from hunger and disease and almost lost hope to capture the city. Only with treason theytook Antioch. Rabid Biд hunger Crusaders plundered the city, suddenly found themselves under siege themselves.


Pope Urban II calls for a crusade. Miniature


Antioch surrounded large army Seljuks. The hope of salvation was not, and all droopy. Only a miracle could save the Crusaders, and it happened. One of the soldiers expressed their vision пid you sleep like the apostle Andrew told him that the Crusaders delivered when will spearhead that Roman soldier prostromyv body crucified Jesus, and pointed out where this hidden relic. The tip was found, and wonder inspired by this great army of Crusaders defeated the Seljuks. However, some suspected dupery for tip looked too new?

After the sea coast and captured the coastal cities June 1099 am by Crusaders saw Jerusalem. Пollowing a long preparation and several unsuccessful assaults July 15, 1099 the city was taken. Three days later, the Crusaders plundered the city, killing tens of thousands people - Christians, Jews and Mohammedans. In the West, in Europe, the annexation of Jerusalem caused unprecedented joy, and Muslims and Jews long remembered Jerusalem рizanynu, hosted by Christians.


The Crusades 1096-1192 biennium


Archbishop William of Tyre Crusaders capture Jerusalem in 1199

When received on 14 June, all the army, armed, set sail from the camp to begin assault. In the whole army was not old, sick or young person who does not like burning sacred thirst for battle, even women forget about their gender and grasped WEAPONS ...

When the enemy saw our learned стinoyu, then left the towers and walls and retreated into a narrow gate of the city ... This flight was not, however, for them, rescuer, because the governor immediately Tancredo moved there a significant forces. He broke the power of до Templeand killed many people there. It is said that he took the huge Temple number of gold срibla and jewelry. Subsequently, other princes vynyschyvshy everyone zdybaly in the lower parts of the city, moved до Temple, The fence which, they heard, hidden behind many people. They arrived there with plenty of horsemen and пishyh and not zhaliyuchy anyone cut everyone found the swords, so that everything was filled in with blood. It was terrible watch as the body lying around everywhere scored and scattered remnants of human bodies. And as the whole land was saturated with blood. And нis only distorted corpses and severed head kept horrible sight, but more zhahalo that most winners are in the blood bruises from head to toe. Within the Temple were killed, as they say, about 10 thousand people than those whose corpses littered the streets and squares ...

Other Crusaders rozpodilyvshys of troops, followed by homes, drew thence parent families with women and дitmy, prostromlyuvaly their sword or dropped from their roofs, breaking their necks so. Thus anyone who burst into the house, turned in all their property, what happened there, as was agreed before the city by storm ...

1. As you evaluate the behavior of the Crusadersв captured in Jerusalem?

2. What attitude of the author, witness assault on the city in the events described?


Storm Jerusalem. Medieval picture


5. State of the Crusaders. Spiritual knightly orders

Land conquered by the Crusaders in the East was considered proprietary and established for them the state: Kingdom of Jerusalem, Principality of Antioch, County and county Edesske Tripoli. The main thought Kingdom of Jerusalem and its Monarch - defender of the Holy Sepulchre.

In their States Crusaders established Western European feudal orders. Each ruler divided ownership of baroniyi (barony), which its turn, divided into knightly fief. All owners fief were obliged to bear the military service of their seniors. Local farmers are in dependence on new owners and had to give harvest of their feudal lord, and pay taxes state. To protect frontiers вEid attacks Muslim Crusaders built a strong fortress. These castles and knights constant readinessв allowed the Crusaders to fight to keep their long domination in the East.

To protect the possessions of Muslims to Christian Crusaders formed spiritual and knightly ordersWhose members were the main cause for not prayer and war. In entering the Order, Knights gave three promises (humility, poverty, celibacy) and obligated, as opposed to Biдordinary monks with weapons to defend the Christian faith.


Scheme. Spiritual knightly orders

The Crusaders have organized the East three orders. ANCIENT - Order hospitalyeрs or ioannitiv. In Jerusalem before the Crusades there was building for Pilgrims Rest - hospital (asylum), which was the name St. John Patriarch of Alexandria (VII c.).. Monks first looked wounded, and sweatм themselves began to fight against infidels. In 1113 was pope formally recognized the existence hospitalyeрs and approved the charter of the Order under which they were obliged to fight against enemies of Christianity. Пince Muslims reconquer 1309 was Palestine captured the island of Rhodes, Malta, and when the Ottoman Turks in 1522 was captured and his Order moved to Malta.

Since the order called MalteseThere is still, and its external manifestation activity is charity.

In early XII Art. arose Order tampliyeрs, or Templars (From France. Temple - the temple). His founded in 1118 - 1119 рр. nine French knights. Residence Order contained in Jerusalem in place of the temple of Solomon. History Order of tampliyeрs enveloped in mystery. For ten years, the founders of hiding its creation. Only in 1128 pope approved its charter. The purpose of the Order was declared ways to protect the Holy Land and the pilgrims themselves. Knights Templar, in contrast to Biд other orders, had great popularity and influence in Europe. Despite vows of poverty, they have accumulated countless wealth, which infringe many envious.

In XIV Art. French King Фilipp IV dealt with Templars, but their treasures and not received.

У 1190 the German Crusaders established in Palestine Teutonic, or German, the Order of St Mary. In contrast to Biд other orders to join him mostly German knights. In Palestine, the Order remained long. At first Teuton Hungarian land protected Biд Polovtsian and then invitation of the Polish lords moved to the Eastern Baltic. First order Teutons was the protection of Polish lands Biд attacks Prus tribes, but about a half-century Prussian Order of the conquered land and all they formed their own state.

Orders Crusaders пidporyadkovuvalysya directly to the pope. Floor dospihiv "take-knight" wore a long robe - mantle. Ioannity had a black cloak with a white cross vosmykonechnym, the Knights Templar - white robe with a red cross vosmykonechnym, Teuton - a white robe with a simple black cross.



Check how to remember

1.      What role the church played in medieval life society?

2.      What was the situation in the early Christian church Middle Ages?

3.      When and where were approved doctrines (Creed) Christian church?

4.      Who led hrystychnsku church in the West?

5.      What were the representatives klyuniyskoho movement?

6.      What 1054 distinguished in church life in Europe?

7.      Describe the situation of Christian свitu before the Crusades.

8.      Tell us about performance пups Urban II in Clermont.

9.      When the first crusade?

10. What states were created Crusaders in the East?

11. Name spiritual knightly orders established Crusaders in Palestine.



Think and answer

1.      What was the relationship between man and God in the Middle Ages?

2.      Why between Christian churches in the West and East of outset there were differences?

3.      What are the reasons and purpose of organized Catholicою churchesою Crusades?

4.      What were the results of the First Crusade?

5.      What created spiritual knightly orders? What "Take-knight" differed from monks?


Perform the task

1.      Identify reasons for participation in the Crusades рiznyh society, these groups.

Social Groups

The rulers of European states

Big feudal


Villagers and townspeople






2.      Make a plan to 'First Cross pohiдAnd prepare a story behind it.


For the curious

In your opinion, why the Crusades historians consider one of the brightest pages of the Middle Ages?