§ 30 - 31. Summarizing the themes "The Slavs and their neighbors, India. China "
As a result Grand settlement of the Slavs (VI-VII century). they have mastered the vast Central, Southeast and Eastern Europe. As in the Germanic tribes of Slavs in the process of state also took place. The first state is the principality Samoa (VII century).. In the end appeared Velykomoravska state, which emerged after the collapse Czech Republic. South Slavs with nomadic BulgarsBulgaria established. In the Eastern Slavs emerged Kievan Rus. About 1000 formed Polish state. At the same time, nomadic tribes scars that settled in Pannonia, Hungary established.
Large influence on the fate of Central and Eastern Europe had a rivalry between Rome and Constantinople for religious influence on new state. Important role in the Christianization of the Slavs played two Greeks preachers brothers Cyril and Methodius. They created the Slavic alphabet and Bible translated into Slavonic. Finally, the Pope of Rome spread its influence in Poland, Hungary.
New European states have a complex historical path development, experiencing periods of growth and decline. Repeatedly they tried conquer the conquerors.
Czech Republic came to the Holy Roman Empire but retained their independence. And even at a time it was most developed part. But the dominance of the Catholic Church and led to the Germans explosion of a powerful religious national liberation movement - the Hussite wars (1419-1434 biennium).
Polish state that emerged late tenth century. already 1139 entered a period of feudal disintegration that lasted almost two century. This period coincided with the time of the German "offensive to the East and Mongol invasion. Poles had to make great efforts not to lose their independence.
Only during the reign of Vladislav LoketkaCasimir III the Great and was able to restore korolivstkupower and unity of the country.
The power of Poland's neighbors urged to seek allies. That ally was the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which emerged in the mid-thirteenth century. and 1362 included in their possession most of the lands of the former Kievan Rus. In 1385 between the two countries was signed Krevsk Union. By combining forces they managed to put an end to Germany "offensive to the East." In 1410 Grunwald was destroyed by the troops of the Teutonic order, which later became a vassal of Poland.
At the end of the ninth century. Nomadic tribes scars "have found new home in Pannonia. By 955, the they swift predatory raids conducted in Western Europe. However, suffered defeat at the Battle of the River Lech, they move to settled life. Also Hungarians accepted Christianity from Rome. Prince Istvan And for progress in Christianity has been crowned, and later declared holy church. In the future fate of Hungary defined the struggle between king and nobility, war with neighboring countries, the Mongol-Tatar invasion. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Hungary experienced the greatest growth and prosperity. Hungarian kings tried transform the country into a mighty Danube empire. But this put an end to the Turks, which in 1526 conquered the country.
Nomadic tribes BulgariansThat moved in the VII century. the Balkan Peninsula mixed with local Slavic tribes. At the beginning of the ninth century. First there was a Bulgarian kingdom. Bulgarians became the main rival of the Byzantine Empire. Their bitter struggle Bulgaria finished conquering Byzantium in 1018
However, the Bulgarians managed to revive his country in 1185 Second Bulgarian kingdom killed in fighting with the Turkish invasion in late fourteenth century.
In the ninth century. East European founding of Kiev Rus. In fact, it broke up into separate principalities in the early XII century. That kept dynastic unity. Mongol invasion finally identified riznist historical destiny principalities. Some of them got a part of Lithuania and Poland preserved the independence of the rest came under the Mongol-Tatar ihom.
Despite the Mongol rule of the Muscovite princes unfurled fight for the unification of land Northeast of Russia under his power. Not hrebuyuchy any means they achieved his. This caused concern to the Tatars. Finally, the parties decided to find out the relationship on the battlefield. KulykovskaBattle 1380 opened the way to overthrow the yoke. It happened in 1480 by the reign of Ivan III. He held a series of reforms that basically completed the consolidation of land north-east Russia in a single Moscow state strengthened the power of Grand Duke, which was renamed sovereign. On the map of Europe has a new centralized state, which led struggle for domination in Eastern Europe.
After the fall of Constantinople, Moscow State remained the only Orthodox country. This made the drive to proclaim himself Moscow "Third Rome" and the successor of Byzantium.
At the end of Article XI. penetrated into Anatolia Turkish Seljuks (Turkic nomadic tribes who came from Central Asia), which had driven the Byzantines to the west and created their own state there - Rumskyy Sultanate. The subsequent history of their place in constant wars against their neighbors: Byzantines, Arabs, Persians and others. They played a crucial role in the defeat of the Crusaders in Palestine. Constant wars, internal turmoil undermined the power of the Seljuks.
In the XIII century. in Asia Minor moved a significant number nomadic Turkic (ethnically close Seljuks), who fled from the Mongol invasion. These tribes settled in seldzhutsko-Byzantine border. Of the demise of the Emir of State Seljuks gained independence. The largest among the emirs lucky Osman.
He expanded the borders of their colonies, united under his authorities of other Turkic tribes, who were called Turk-Ottomans.
Later, the Emir of the Ottoman Empire took the title sultan.
When at the western end of Asia Minor and growing mohutnishala The Ottoman state, its neighbors were in decline. This enabled the Turks proceed to the conquest. In a short period of time they conquered the Balkans and Asia Minor. In 1453 they fell under the blows of Constantinople. As a result, map of the world faced the new Ottoman empire, which extended its gains in the next century, stretched their possessions in Europe, Asia and North Africa.
Unlike Europe, distinct border crossing of the East (China, India and others) from the era of the ancient world to the Middle Ages almost impossible. They had such enormous changes in Europe. Orient developed as in the previous century, in its traditional boundaries.
In India, still a lot of small warring states themselves, while the principles of life of most people remained intact due to the existence of caste system.
The only major change was the spread of Islam in the north Hindustan. But the dominant religion of India continued to remain Hinduism and Buddhism.
Most prominent state of India to the Middle Ages was the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 City) with its capital in Delhi. But it was quite a creaky education.
In China in the Middle Ages the empire finally established a form of government and public system. For thousands of years in China has changed several dynasties of emperors. The most powerful dynasty in China was Tan (618-907 years).
In Throughout the Middle Ages in China's relationship consisted of nomads, who lived on its northern borders. In the early thirteenth century. China got the power Mongols, and only in 1368 he managed to break free from their domination.
Indian Chinese civilization and created an original and rich culture that has become a real treasure for the cultures of different nations. Most of the inventions that were made in the Middle Ages were made in the East. Europeans, most of them only borrowed or artistic alterations.
Tasks for generalization
· Specify directions Mongol campaigns, define States that had seized them;
· I would state that emerged in Eastern Europe Middle Ages;
· Determine where attractions battles: that determined the fate Byzantine Empire, the Crusaders stopped the German advance to the East, in which was caused to the Teutonic order, which contributed to the overthrow of the Mongol-Tatar yoke of Moscow State;
· Circle outside of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, the Novgorod land Moscow State Empire Gupta, Delhi sultanate, empire Mongols, the Chinese state (Empires Suy, Tan, Yuan, Ming).