§ 8. Placement of the world's population and its territorial organization.
Population distribution - The result of spatial distribution of the population in the world in a certain historical period. World population is very unevenly placed, because humanity has long concentrated in areas with favorable for farming conditions. Because almost 70% of the world's population is only 7% of the land. About 15% of the land have no permanent population. It areas that are characterized by extreme natural conditions - different types of deserts, forests, highlands, mainland Antarctica.
An important feature of population distribution is average population density - degree POPULATIONS specific territory or the number of permanent population per unit area (usually 1 km2).
The average population density of the Earth - 45 osib/km2, but there are countries and area where the figure exceeds 300 osib/km2. The highest density population typical of coastal areas and for areas with historically caused by high population density. These areas are located in South East, South and South-West Asia (average density 400? Osib/km2 600) Western Europe (200? Osib/km2 600), on the eastern coast of South America (100? osib/km2 200). Among the leaders of the population density with large areas of the country - Bangladesh (965 osib/km2) South Korea (483 osib/km2), Netherlands (465 osib/km2), India (341 osib/km2), Belgium (335 osib/km2). Among small-area countries record for the population density is Maldives (1 000 osib/km2), Malta (1200 osib/km2), Singapore (6000 osib/km2), Monaco (16 000 osib/km2), Macau (China) (27 000 osib/km2).
On the other hand half of the inhabited land is population density about 5 osib/km2, and Greenland, which belongs of Denmark, 1 person accounted for 35 km2.
Resettlement of the Population - The process of redistributing the population in a particular area, resulting in net settlements there.
For each epoch according to the level of economic development characteristic features of their resettlement. At the dawn of human development settlement was dispersed, sometimes - nomadic. Rural Studies economy contributed settled, a network of settlements - rural and urban, with significant predominance of rural population.
Settlement on the water. Kashmir, India
In the industrial and postindustrial society dominated by urban population. It should be gradually erased the differences between rural and urban due to the spread of urban lifestyle in the countryside - rurbanizatsiyi.
At the moment there are two main forms of resettlement of the population - rural and urban.In the cities lived 47% of the Earth and this share is growing. The historical process of increasing the role of cities in society, widespread spread of urban lifestyles and urban culture called urbanization. In the narrow sense of urbanization - is the increase in cities, especially large, increasing the number of residents in a particular area. Main indicators of urbanization - the pace, level, form. Rate of urbanization shows the speed of this process in the world as a whole and its individual parts, and level of urbanization - The proportion of people living in cities.
Today the urban population growth averaged 2% per year. For developed countries, characterized by a significant proportion urban population (70%) it is 0,3% per year. In countries that developing urbanization rates are much higher - 4% per year. Especially they high in Western Africa and South Asia (8-13% per year), caused a small proportion of urban population and high rates population growth.
In many urban areas all over the world can be divided into two groups: with the number above and far below the world average index. In Europe, Latin America, United States, Canada, Australia and Oceania urban population is? population, and in Asia and Africa - 1 / 3. In general, higher proportion of urban population is typical for developed countries and countries where natural conditions are not conducive to conducting Agriculture (Singapore - 100% Belgium - 97%, Kuwait - 97 %, Iceland - 92%, Israel - 92%, Uruguay - 91%, UK - 91 %, Netherlands - 89%, Argentina - 89%, Germany - 88%, Libya - 88 %).
The lowest proportion of urban population typical of the poorest countries Africa and Asia with the agricultural economy (Bhutan, Rwanda - 6%, Burundi - 8%, Nepal - 10%, Uganda - 13%).
The main form of urbanization is city. City - settlement, which screened in accordance with the law of the State to category of cities with certain populations that perform specific functions - administrative and political, industrial, transportation, cultural.
In a significant indicator of population and population density for the city characteristic of employment is in agriculture, specific building a compact and high accomplishment. In Japan, consider city areas with populations over 50 thousand people in the Netherlands - 20 thousand people in Ukraine and Russia - 12 thousand people in the USA - 2,5 thousand, in Iceland - a total of 200 people. According to statistics, UN - 20 thousand people.
Urban landscape of Sydney
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Urban agglomeration - Territorial communities cities (settlement system), which are closely related industrial, economic, infrastructure connections.
Settling System - All settlements in the country as well as specific relationships between them.
In urbanization of traditionally allocated three "waves": Middle Ages (XIV-XV cent.) Nineteenth century. (Epoch of the Industrial Revolution) and second half of the twentieth century. Each of the waves associated with qualitative changes in Economics: development of manufactory and trade, industry, non-production sphere.
For typical modern urbanization hiperurbanizatsiya, concentration of population in large cities with populations over 1 million people. Most major cities in China (50) USA (45), India (23), Brazil (16), Russia (13). These same countries are the leaders in number urban population. In the world there are also 23 supermista "with population exceeding 10 million people, most of which are in developing countries.
For contemporary urbanization is characterized as the growth of suburbs - suburbanizatsiyaThat leads to formation urban agglomerations.
As a result of merger agglomeration form megapolises or megalopolis (From the Greek. Megalu - big and polis - city) - solid strip of urban settlement.
In the United States emit megalopolis in which live more than 1 / 2 people country: Pryatlantychnyy, or your boss, "(Boston - Washington DC) - 60 million persons, lakeside, or Chipitts "(Chicago - Detroit - Pittsburgh) - 40 million persons; California, or "San San" (San Francisco - San Diego) - 25 million people; Shidnoflorydskyy (Miami - West Palm Beach) and Prymeksykanskyy (Houston - New Orleans). The last two are in the megalopolis formative stage, the number of inhabitants in them is about 10 million persons. In Japan, the megalopolis formed Tokkay (Tokyo - Nagoya - Osaka) with population over 55 million people (about half the population is country).
In central Tokyo
Record number of people became European megalopolis - about 100 million people, or almost 1 / 4 the population of Europe (excluding CIS). European megalopolis - is a giant cluster of cities and urban agglomerations are located in many countries. It originates in Manchester (UK) and ends in Milan (Italy). Between these cities he passes through London and Birmingham (UK) Ranstad agglomeration (Amsterdam - The Hague - Rotterdam) in the Netherlands, Brussels in Belgium, the agglomeration of Lille - Roubaix - Turken and Paris in France Ruhr area, Cologne, Frankfurt am Main and Mannheim in Germany, Basel and Zurich in Switzerland. After a form (at first he stretches from northwest to southeast, then turns southwest) was named the "European banana".
For many developing countries, characterized false urbanization (Pseudo urbanization), when the increase in urban population accompanied by a proliferation of urban lifestyle and culture, and formed urban slumsWithout adequate improvement.
Despite the urbanization of the Earth, about half the residents live in rural settlements. Particularly high proportion of rural population in Asia - 65%, Africa - 70 %. In China and India, the share of rural population is respectively 70 and 73%. Leads in this tropical country index Africa (Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda) and South Asia (Bhutan, Nepal).
Market on the water. Bangkok, Thailand
Depending on natural conditions and historical traditions of the country produce group (rural) and dispersed or scattered (Hamlet, farm), form the settlement.
A generic form settlement prevails in Europe, Japan, China, in most developing countries.
Dispersed form prevalent in the U.S., Canada, Australia - geographically large countries with low population density and small proportion of rural residents.
For areas with arid climate and mountainous areas (North Africa, the northern part of West Africa, South West and Central Asia) is typical nomadic form of resettlement. The number of nomads in the world is 25-30 million people.
Mechanical movement of population. Significant impact on the world's population are placing Migration (mechanical movement of the population)- Movement of people across borders of certain areas to change location or on more or less long period. Migration of existing always, thanks to them accustomed new territory.
Migration processes in the world under influence of various factors. With this in mind distinguish several groups of migration.
By Area emit external migration (Crossing national borders), which share the emigration (exit from the country) and Immigration (Entrance) and internal (Within the country). Number of foreign workers up to several tens of millions a year.
By way of today is dominated by voluntary migrationBut numerous examples are known forcedIncluding removal of blacks slaves from Africa to America. By way of them can be divided into organizedUndertaken with government and NGOs for their organizational and economic support and unorganized - At the expense of the migrants directly without financial and logistical support to the party.
Reasons (motives) moving to a new residence can be varied. The most massive of them - socio-economicThat express the human desire to find any paid job or
It is moving from developing countries with significant human resources, developed countries move leading scientists, the intellectual elite to the U.S., Japan, Germany - "brain drain". Emigrants of 23% among Members of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and 33% among the winners Nobel Prize, who represented the United States.
Political migration following the collapse of states, repression, persecution, they can be combined with war - Refugees are leaving the place of military action. Often causes find new habitats are religiousconflicts such as between India and Pakistan, Bangladesh, Israel and Palestine. Sometimes representatives of certain nationalities migrated (national migration) through the repatriation process, the formation of a new national population States, for example, Israel and others. Often the causes of migration are unification or disintegration of the family - domestic household migration.
One of the most important characteristics is duration of migration. Over a period of migration to share permanent and temporary. Temporary migration due to work-people. There are three types of temporary migration: seasonal (Related to agricultural activities - harvesting, cattle races to new pastures), crew (Related to the extraction of natural resources in poor areas for permanent residence) Pendulum (Common in areas, while suburbs in the morning with people coming to work and coming home at night).
Statistically, at the beginning of. in the world, there were 25 million refugees, including 3 / 4 was on the countries of Asia and Africa and developing countries.
At the beginning of. flow of international migration exceeded 150 million persons, the annual growth rate of migrants is 2,5%. On today are three main areas attractive to migrants. It especially North America and European Union - more than 25 million people migrants in each region, then - Gulf States - 15 million persons. The share of foreign workers is in Qatar - 85%, UAE - 90 %. The main "supplier" of migrants are the countries in South (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh), Southeast (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam) and Southwest (Turkey, Iran, Yemen), Asia North (Egypt, Algeria, Morocco) and Tropical (Senegal, Cameroon, Congo) Africa, southern (Portugal, Greece, Spain) and East Central (Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina) in Europe and Latin America (Mexico, Puerto Rico). Is also intense migration flows between Latin American countries. Much of labor moves from Colombia, Paraguay, Chile, El Salvador to Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela.
The nature of the influence of migration on the demographic situation and labor depends on both quantitative and qualitative composition immigrants (highly skilled workers, scientists, or forced migrants, refugees, deported, the host, which are derived from other countries).
They have a positive and negative effects of demographic processes. As a result, migration can change sex, age of population, appear legal and socio-economic problems, specific conflicts between groups of the population - religious, ethnic.