§ 35. China.
Area: 9,6 million km2
Population:1 338 613 000 (2010)
Official name: Republic of China
Political System: People's Republic
Legislature: All-China Assembly of People's Representatives
President: Chairman (elected by Assembly of People's Representatives of China 5-year term)
Administrative structure: 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions (including Hong Kong - Hong Kong and Macau - Aomyn) and four cities under central authority - Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing
Common religion: Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism
National Holiday: National Day - 1 October (Independence Day of China)
EGP and natural resources potential. China - State in Central and Eastern Asia, bordering Mongolia, Russia, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan.
Relief country quite diverse. Western part is located within Central Asia. In the south-west - highest in the world Tibet Plateau (a combination of raised to 4000 - 4500 m high plains and ridges 5000 - 6000 m). Highlands obramlyayetsya high mountain systems: the south and west - the Himalaya and Karakoram, in the north and east - Kunlun, Nanshan and Shito-Tybetski mountains. On north and northwest of the country are large desert Plain: Tarymska, Dzungaria, Alashan, Gobi, Takla Makan-. East part of China is located within East Asia, where the mountains do not exceed 3000 m. In the north-east - raising large and small and Khingan northern part of the Manchus-Koreyskyh mountains that separate the lowlands Santszyan and Sunlyao. South - heavily eroded Loess Plateau and the plateau Ordos, mountains Tsynlin, Sychuanskaya basin, Yunnan-Huychzhouske Highlands Nanlin and mountains. Along the Yellow Sea and East China stretches Great China plain.
In the western part of China climate sharply continental, temperate highlands of Tibet - cold, in the eastern of China - monsoon, north of the mountains Tsynlin - moderate, between Tsynlin mountains and Nanlin - subtropical in the southern provinces of the country - tropical. Rainfall ranges from 50 mm (Gobi Desert) to 2500 mm (east coast) a year, snow is everywhere, allowing year-round grazing. In autumn there are typhoons. In southern country's climatic conditions allow the cultivation of two crops a year. Western areas lie in the internal flow, in the east there extensive network of rivers: Yangtze, Yellow River, with tributaries Sytszyan with monsoon regime of the summer floods and used for irrigation and shipping.
Plains of eastern parts of China are mainly processed. Only 10% the country under cultivation, while China ranked fourth in world's arable land area, but per capita, this figure in the worst world - 0,07 hectares. The mountains are mixed and coniferous forests in temperate north, subtropical broad-leaved tropical and stacked - in the south.
Nadra countries have significant reserves mineral resources: coal (a third of world reserves), iron ore, oil, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten (half of world reserves), antimony (the first place in the world reserves), manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, rare earth metals (first place in the world reserves), magnetite, aluminum, zinc, uranium, diamonds, precious and semiprecious stones. Significant potential thermal and mineral waters.<
strong> population - the main economic resource of the country. China - bahatonaselena best country in the world, ranked first in number Human Resources. The pace of population growth decreased in comparison with end 60 years of the twentieth century. when it was observed peak. Now figures serednosvitovi below, this situation has been achieved through active demographic policies aimed at reducing fertility. Reduction population in the country include demographers since the 30's years of this century.
More than 80% of the population concentrated in eastern regions, here main production facilities are concentrated. For China has always been characterized by external migration, the number of Chinese diaspora ("huatsyao") according to various estimates range from 30 to 50 million people.
The fate of the urban population is only 43%. The main religion of China - Confucianism also distributed as Taoism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity.
Mountain Monastery. Tibet, China
93% of the population - the Chinese (Han), inhabiting principally the eastern part of the country, while others - Chuang, Uighurs, Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols, Hui, Miao et al. (About 50 people belonging to different language families and groups). The official language of the country - Chinese (7 main dialect groups). Due to the policy of restricting fertility male dominated population.
The average life expectancy for men - 73 women - 72 years.
Largest cities: Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Shenyang, Chongqing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Harbin, Chengdu, Zibo, Syan, Nankyn, Taiyuan, Changchun, Dalian. Ports: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Lianyungang, Nankyn, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Tsynhuandoa, Shanghai, Tianjin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong), Hanhu, Yantai, Shantou, Xiamen.
Great Wall of China has long branches with more than 6000 km and age more than two millennia<
strong> Beijing, capital of China, a major transport hub with Shoudu international airport. Beijing - one of the ancient Chinese cities, the inner part of which includes a complex of the Imperial city, the core of which - the Forbidden City with Imperial Palace complex (and half of XV century. now Huhun Museum).
In the suburbs of Beijing and advanced metallurgy, petrochemicals, machinery, textile, chemical, military, electronic, printing, food processing, building materials, art craft. The city is underground, Academy of Sciences, University theaters, museums Chinese history, art gallery, memorial museum. The capital city of China was October 1, 1949
Tianjin, a city in northeast China's port on the River Haihe, near Yellow Sea, one of the main economic centers of China. Transport junction with the international airport and the subway, developed metallurgical, engineering (electronics, instrumentation) textile, food, light, rubber, paper, chemical industry. It produces bicycles, watches, sewing machines, carpets.
The city was founded by Emperor Yongle in 1404 as a large fortification. Among the monuments of the house-museum of Pu Yi - the last Emperor Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) and others.
Guangzhou, a port city (turnover of more than 15 million tons per year) in the delta of Delta, 110 km from the coast of South China Sea, the most important economic center of Southern China, one of the largest transport units and industrial centers of the international airport.
The city is a textile company (jute, cotton, silk) food (sugar, canned fruits and vegetables), chemical, rubber, leather and footwear, pulp and paper, printing, construction (Cement, brick, tile) industry, widely represented engineering (heavy machine tools, shipbuilding, equipment for textile and food industries), and steel. Preserved traditional crafts (painted enamel, lacquer ware, carvings on elephantine bones, fans, umbrellas). In the vicinity of Guangzhou extended tropical agriculture (horticulture), fishing and artificial fish farming.
Guangzhou has arisen about the III. BC In the Middle Ages - large port here began maritime Silk Road. Tourists attracted numerous architectural monuments, which are among the largest Christian church in China, many parks.
Economy. China is both the space and nuclear state. For the production of GDP China shares first or second place in the world (Including U.S.). Economy keeps its bahatoukladnist. Market economy in China is built under the leadership of the Communist Party (CCP) based on the five-year plans. Economic reforms began with the Agricultural sector, where farmers were given the opportunity to rent long term land and equipment. Given the high economic growth economy has an extensive character. GDP per capita in 2004 reached $ 1280. The fate of foreign investment in the country is very high, almost 80% of all foreign investors in ethnic Chinese ("huatsyao"), which living abroad. China undisputed second place after the U.S. volume of attracted foreign investments. One of the characteristics China's economic reforms is their evolutionary nature and lack of elements of "shock therapy".
With plans for the CPU to 2010 the country must catch up the U.S. total GDP, but a number of experts believe this figure is exaggerated, because at this time some estimates China's economy is 45% capacity of the U.S. economy.
To facilitate structural change China develops its own education system, facilitates the training of students in kordonom.yu especially in the U.S. and Japan encourage imports of technologies that develop progressive sectors (software, new materials, telecommunications industry, biotechnology, health Health). In the area Haydian (north of Beijing) was established Chinese Silicon Valley. Intensification of production and by bringing Results: The unemployment rate reaches 20%. The country has quietly encouraged emigration.
The structure GDP Agriculture is - 10.6 % Of the cost, industry - 49.2%, services - 40.2%. Employment population is as follows: agriculture occupied 43%, industry - 25% in services - 32% of labor resources.
Indicators of the changes in the structure of GDP indicate that the value agriculture in the country is gradually reduced, industry and service sector has been a growing pace.
Industry. The country ranks first in the world volume of coal: Province Chance (deposit Datong), Heibei (Kayluan), Liaoning (Fushun, Fuxin), fifth in terms of oil production: Heilongjiang Province (Daqing field gives one-third of Chinese oil) perspective is also a shelf and Liaodong bays Bohayvanskoyi Yellow Sea. Enterprises tend to refining centers of consumption of finished products or major sea and river ports (Shanghai, Tianjin, Nanjing). On the basis of deposits of coal in China (Shanxi, Fusin, Fushun), as in other mining areas of the world (Russia, USA, Kazakhstan) distribution and a high enough level of development was vuhleenerhohimichnyy cycle. It includes extraction, enrichment and coking coal, production of ammonia and nitrogen fertilizers, receiving benzene, naphthalene and other products of organic synthesis.
The country's largest iron ore basin (Anshan) is located in the province Lyaolin. China - the largest exporter of tungsten ores.
By producing electricity, China is second only to USA. Great of the energy produced by TPP, 3 / 4 of which run on coal. Increasing importance in the energy balance of HPS. Planned introduction of exploitation of the world's largest hydroelectric "Hechzhouba" power of 17,700 MW. Developing nuclear power.
The country ranks first in the world of cast iron and steel plants they tend to production areas of coking coal and iron (Anshan, Fushun, Baotou, Wuhan, Shenyang). Obsoletes equipment and manual labor leads to the fact that a significant proportion of steel has low quality because China imports of finished steel and steel. A giant plant that produces high-quality steel, built in Baoshan. The plant focuses on imported raw materials.
Center for non-ferrous metals are concentrated in the south and southeast of the country (in Yunnan Province - copper and tin, in the province Hunan - tin, aluminum, lead, zinc).
Shenyang Heavy Machinery and Harbin is the older branches engineering, based on strong raw material base. As a result economic reforms conducted in the country, leading sectors gradually began to electronics, machinery and shipbuilding.
Modern China is the top five producing countries radios, watches, cameras, color TVs, household refrigerators, sewing machines, bicycles, ships.
China takes first place and the production of mineral fertilizers (Chongqing, Shanghai), but most of them have low quality, because agriculture country depends on imported products. Chemical companies of the country tend to refining centers and major ports.
Most competitive products are shoes and clothes. Textile industry of China - the first in the world, because export production industry represented in most countries. Textile company specializing in the manufacture of clothing made of synthetic fabrics. Enterprises of this sector are scattered throughout the country, but most large located in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Harbin. Chinese export products sold in North America, Japan, Western Europe has high quality standards. Production facilities are located in coastal provinces, which are concentrated numerous branches of foreign corporations. In northern and inland areas based multiple handicraft companies producing counterfeit products leading brands of the world of low quality and price assigned to the markets of Russia, the CIS and Eastern Europe.
Light industry is focused on the country's cheap labor, is located in the major cities of Shanghai, Tianjin, Qingdao and Beijing. All City is the biggest center of silk industry.
Agriculture. In agriculture country dominated by crop production. Half of the arable land - land irrigation. The main agricultural products: rice, wheat, potatoes, tea (Batkivshyna - Yunnan Province, the second largest in the world production after India), millet, barley, apples, sweet potatoes, oilseeds (soybeans, peanuts), cotton, tobacco, jute, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.. Developed vegetable (grown more than a hundred kinds of vegetables), fruit, viticulture. Sichuan Province called the garden of Asia. The country can divided into "Yellow China" - the north-eastern area of
In China, concentrated 40% of the world's pigs, bred great cattle (130 million heads), the top country for manufacture and export of natural silk.
In western countries raise sheep and goats. One fifth of the world fishing accounted for China (a third of it is river fish, in including carp breeding in rice checks).
China ranks first in the world for gross harvest of rice, wheat, potatoes, vegetables, cotton, tobacco, pigs, sheep and meat production.
Geographically divided into four agricultural zones: the northern Beauharnais farming and cattle breeding, rice-southern subtropical zone; Northwest zone grazing cattle and farming oazysnoho and alpine zone in Tibet and Qinghai.
As in Tibet through endurance and nevybahlyvosti very popular
Since the mid-1980s has been made to ensure population food. Today, fruit, fish, seafood exports (The main food market - the CIS countries, especially the Far East Russian, Chinese food is provided at 44%). In addition, leading agricultural product exports are cotton.
Transportation. The country has developed all kinds of transport, but is dominant Railway (third place in the world for the length of the transport network). Densest transportation network developed on the Great Plain of China. Sea transport is most important in foreign trade operations. Main ports: Shanghai, Qinhuangdao, Dalian, Qingdao, Hong Kong, Tianjin, Huangpu. With turnover of river transport country second only to USA. Bourne Again begun to develop air transport. By volume of air the country is ranked fifth in the world (the main Airports - Hong Kong and Beijing). Pipelines transporting gas, oil, refined products. Worst of all are provided with transport links central and mountain regions. Today there are about 253 million users of Internet.
Foreign economic relations. The country becomes an important financial center of Asia and ranks second after Japan's largest market reserves ($ 290 billion, including Taiwan - 450000000000 $). Major stock exchanges are in Shanghai and Hong Kong.
Neon signs in the streets of Hong Kong
For China's foreign trade is characterized by persistent surplus. In exports dominated by machinery, including equipment for data processing and home appliances and production of light Industry: Clothing, textiles and iron and steel, optical and medical equipment, chemical products. China's main partners are the U.S., Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Germany.
Imported oil and mineral fuels, optical and medical equipment, metal ores, plastics, products of organic chemistry, machinery and equipment from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, USA and Germany.
A characteristic feature of modern Chinese economy - its dependence on external market. With the growth of exports - imports China is one of the leaders in international trade. For a country characterized by significant territorial differences. The greatest level of development differ coastal eastern province, creating a so-called "Outer China"