§ 36. India.
Area: 3.3 million km2
Population:1 156 898 000 (2010)
Official name: Republic of India
Political System: Federal parliamentary republic
Legislature: Bicameral Parliament (composed of the Council of States and the People's Assembly)
President: President (elected for 5 years)
Administrative structure: Federation consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories
Common religion: Hinduism, Islam
Member UN, Commonwealth
National Holiday: Independence Day (15 August 1947), Republic Day (January 26, 1950 - The day of adoption of the Constitution)
EGP and natural resources potential. India - State South Asia, located mainly within the Hindustan Peninsula and Indo-Hanhskoyi plain, includes part of the Himalayas and Karakoram, which borders with China (in the Himalayas border is not marked), Pakistan Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka and washed Indian Ocean.
Most of the country - Plains and Plateau. Dean plateau (from 900 m to 300 m) in the west and east becomes Mountain West and Eastern Ghats, the external slopes are abruptly break into Ocean.
In northern trough located at the foothill alluvial Indo-Hanhska plain. The highest mountain system of the Earth Himalaya (g Kanchenjunga, 8598, on the border of India and Nepal in the State of Sikkim) and Mount Karakorum alpine terrain with glaciers and framed in India north.
Climate India's tropical in the north monsoon. Important role agriculture plays for the wet summer monsoon ("Hariph" 70 - 90% precipitation), winter - dry and slightly cooler, and from March to May continued dry and hot season ("Rabi"). Rainfall per year range 100 west Indo-Hanhskoy plains to 12 000 mm around Cherapundzhi. The air warms up in summer to 26 - 320p, and in winter - to 18 - 240p. Widely used for irrigation flowing summer Ganges with its tributaries, Ind. (top), Brahmaputra (lower reaches) Narmada, Hodavari, Krishna and others.
Sunset over Indom
The fifth part of India is covered by forests. Natural vegetation changed dominated savanna, xerophytic woodlands, sometimes - deciduous forests in the northwest - and semi-shrub desert. On windward slopes of Western Ghats, in the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra, in Eastern foothills of the Himalayas - evergreen tropical forests, Teramo, above - monsoon forests, alpine and mixed coniferous forests, alpine meadows and steppes. Soils of the country are among the most fertile in the world.
Nadra India's rich minerals: Coal (States of Jharkhand and West Bengal), iron (quarter of the world stocks), titanium, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, natural gas, diamonds, oil, limestone, chromite, precious and semiprecious stones uranium ore and thorium sands are a reliable basis for the development of nuclear energy.
Among the natural risks should be noted erosion of 60% agricultural land, drought, floods, devastating monsoon rains earthquakes in the mountains.
Population. India - the most multi-country world. The most numerous peoples of the country - hindustantsi, Telugu, Marathi, Bengali, Tamil, hudzharattsi, kannara, Punjabis and others. Hindus up 80% of the population, Muslims - about 14% are Christian, Sikh, Buddhists. Muslim population is concentrated in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, western Uttar Pradesh. Christians concentrated in the northeast, in Bombay and in the South; Sikh - in Punjab and adjacent areas, Buddhists - in Jammu and Kashmir and in areas Himalayas.
General state language is Hindi and English, the main language of Indian Muslims in the north and south of India - Urdu.
India is one of the most densely populated countries. The average density population that was in the early twentieth century. about 70 people. per km2 at Top XI. amounted to 341 persons. 1 km2. Over the last century the number of population and its density increased almost 4 times. Growth population is still ahead of general world despite active demographic policy in the country. On average, for every Indian woman accounted for four of the child. One third of the population are children. Sexual structure characterized by a sharp predominance of male population. By number of economically active population is second only China.
India has numerous diaspora (Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, South Africa, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Fiji, etc.)..
Life expectancy increased from 32 to 70 years for men and '72 For women. Even in the second century. BC Mauro imperial capital city of Pataliputra (modern Patna) were major cities. Today it is the least urbanized countries world. 71% of India's population lives in villages and only 29% - urban dwellers. Not Despite this in India, 23 major cities, most of them: Mumbai (Bombay), Kolkata (Calcutta), Delhi, Chennai (Madras), Bangalore, Hyderabad Ahmedabad, Pune, Kanpur, Nagpur, Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhilai.
Taj Mahal. India
Delhi, The capital of India (the official capital is New Delhi) Major transport hub, one of the leading industrial centers in India.
Around XIII-XII century. BC the city was known as Indraprastha. Today it has over a thousand historical and architectural monuments. White marble pavilion and sofa-Khasa (Hall private audiences), supported by 32 columns, decorated with the finest carved and inlaid gems. It was taken in 1739 Persian Nadir Shah-throne, decorated with diamonds "Kohinor."
The city is working Enterprise light, chemical-pharmaceutical, glass, ceramic, food, construction, printing, machine building, metallurgy, developed Traditional artistic craftwork.
In addition there are four universities Academy of Music and Dance Academy Fine Arts, Library and Planetarium them. J. Nehru Library them. Gandhi Memorial Museum of Mahatma Gandhi, J. Nehru, Indira Gandhi and others.
Mumbai city, India's largest port on the Arabian coast (Turnover of about 30 million tons). The most important commercial, industrial and financial center of India, a significant hub of international routes. In city
It was founded as a trading factory and British military fort in 1672 the intensive development and growth of the city contributed to favorable economic and geographical location. A leading academic and research center: a University of Technology Institute, Center for Nuclear Research, Institute of Fundamental Research them. Tata and others. Here are the largest center of Indian film industry "Bolivud."
Kolkata, a city in India, the Ganges delta, the core of large metropolitan Calcutta, consisting of dozens of towns that have merged with each one (Haura, Behala, Bhatpara, Garden Rich, Kamarhati, Baranahar). One of the largest economic centers in the country, transport hub. The largest port after Mumbai (turnover of more than 10 million tons of year) is an international airport. Developed engineering, electrical, chemical, printing, jute, cotton, food industry, working underground.
The most important cultural center of India. In the XIX century. - The center of the so-called "Bengal Renaissance" in a prominent role played by the prime Rabindranath Tagore. It established the largest in India National Library (1836), the largest in India, Indian Museum (1814), in older India University (1857), Botanical Garden (1786, on the bank of the Hooghly, about 40 thousand species of plants).
Stay on the water. India
Modern India has three major social problems: First - Poverty: The GDP per capita country takes place that corresponds to the place of the backward countries of tropical Africa, part of the population living on $ 1 a day (officially adopted in world poverty) is 50% of the population, more than 7% of the population - tramp, only 30% of the population with modern sanitary living conditions, 35% have the opportunity to buy drugs. Low level of sanitation led to the fact that the country ranks first in the world by the number of HIV infected. But at the same time more than 200 million people. live at the average American, indeed India is called "second consumer markets of the world. "
Second problem - unemployment. Especially great figures of unemployed in agriculture - up to 30%.
Third problem - illiteracy. About one third population can not read and write, among women this figure reaches 50%. Along with this scientific potential of the country than most rozvynutyyh European countries. In universities enrolled over 5.5 million people. 2 / 3 world poor live in India, although the standard of living gradually increased, and the fate of poor decreases. Tolerance, lack of class hatred and respect for wealth, characteristic of Hinduism and Buddhism, protect India from social conflict and turmoil.
Economy. India - one of the economic giants the developing world. GDP per capita is about $ 450. But if the figure calculated by purchasing power parity (PPP), it increases up to 3 000 $. The structure of GDP agriculture economy is 17.2%, industry - 29.1%, services - 53.7 %.
75 industrial groups, which are among the largest monopolies of the country, created and run by family basis. The largest is the "Tata" (heavy, chemical, electronic, food industry), "Birla" (50 sectors, among which is the main electronics and light industry, nonferrous metallurgy, automotive, trade), "Dalmiya," "Fashion" "Kirloskar", "Bangura", "Nahertul." In addition to the large private capital is very large proportion of fine craftsmanship, working mostly medieval technology, widely using hand work.
In Indian Bazaar
To State India's economy are military-industrial, energy, metallurgy, nuclear energy, rail and sea transport, aviation, communications. The private sector dominates in engineering, agriculture, light industry, food and medical Industry, construction, trade, road transport.
In 60 years of XX century. India has experienced "Green revolution": due to the spread of hybrid varieties of wheat, rice and other crops were not only solved the problem of food security of its population, but the issue of export of food grains. Later, in 70 - 80 years was the so-called "white revolution", which resulted in agreed question self-reliant dairy products. According to the results revolutions country rid the problem of hunger.
Industry. India has considerable mineral and energy resources, so mining plays traditionally large role in the overall structure of industrial countries and gives over 16% of its exports. The share of industry accounted for 9% of world production iron ore, almost a third of which are exported, about 15% - manganese ore, 60% mica mining.
Most enterprises heavy industry India after independence were nationalized or already created by the state. They are concentrated in the east, where deposits coking coal combined with iron ore deposits. In earlier deep backward districts created new industrial centers Bhilai, Bokaro (in which 50 of the last century, with the assistance of the USSR built steel giant), Rourkela (steelmaking plant, built with the assistance of Germany), Durgapur (Steel Works, built with the assistance of Great Britain, heavy machinery). By production of finished products industry in the country among the ten world leaders.
Non-ferrous metallurgy (Production of aluminum) of the country tends to sources of raw materials (Corby), electricity (Cat), import alumina (Ratnahiri). The development of the brakes is insufficient energy base country.
Metal base India is at the heart of powerful engineering: second only to U.S. production electronics products, information technology, software support and export, "Silicon Valley" of India are Maharashtra and Karnataka, heavy and power engineering (West Bengal, Jharkhand, Uttar aspiration) provide their own needs and allow exports, by its own space program Research (Space Center in Bangalore, spaceport on the island. Shriharikota in Bay of Bengal).
The structure of PEB India plays a significant role so-called "wooden energy ", which gives almost one fifth of the energy generated in country, almost 90% of wood that is harvested, it is under slight total forested country. Deforestation is catastrophic, but the government can not abandon the use of firewood as they - the only energy source villagers and urban poor. Coal-base Energy India (the country is more than 7% of world production coal). The need for oil is covered by domestic production only half, slightly better situation with gas and uranium. In the north, northwest developed hydropower. Priority development has nuclear power, the largest development center is located near Mumbai, but a large proportion of this research area is military character. The development industry is far behind the needs of the economy: entering the top ten leaders in the field of the average shower indicators, the country lags behind the global average performance in nearly five times.
Among the areas of manufacturing industry has historically developed textiles, which provides a third of exports. India ranks first in the world for the development of jute industry and the second (after China) - Cotton. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu is a principal in production of cotton fabrics (Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Chennai). Karnataka - largest supplier of silk. Jute industry is concentrated in West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh. Jammu and Kashmir, world famous for products made from wool (cashmere).
India ranks first in world production of jewelry of gold and silver, as well as diamond cutting, jewelry and precious stones make up almost 15% of exports.
With the chemical industry's largest development got production of pesticides, fertilizers and medicines. India is a significant producer of competitive compared to Western products, but much cheaper medicines and pharmaceuticals. Industry has a pronounced export orientation, production of medicinal drugs based on the principles of traditional medicine. Restraining factor for the industry is the lack of raw materials.
World famous Indian natural silk, Kashmir shawls, wood carvings, articles made of papier-mache, saffron, furs, jewelry products that are created artisanal and modern enterprises.
Each Indian state, many cities and certain areas are famous for their handicrafts. For example, in the largest state of Uttar Pradesh city
Formation of highly qualified personnel is a major task of the country, so much attention is paid to the development of science and higher education institutions. The country has more than 170 universities and 7,000 colleges. The number of specialists with higher education India is one of the leading places in the world, the second by the number of professional programmers and third - for number of qualified scientific and technical personnel. The development of the service sector - the main source of economic growth, which can become a major exporter of software services and workers in this field.
Agriculture. Processing 145 million hectare (Over 2 / 5 of the territory), under crops - about 180 million hectares (of which more than 35 million hectares zasivayetsya twice a year). 3 / 5 irrigated farmland. Basic food crops of India - cereals: rice and wheat (according to their collection India ranks second after China), and millet: dzhovar and badzhra (first place in the world). Punjab and Har'yana - Basic Wheat states, West Bengal, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand and Bihar - Basic Rice states of the country.
Of great importance are the technical culture. For gross harvest of peanuts, Jute (West Bengal) and sesame top country, sugar Rush (Valley of the Ganges and the Tamil Nadu State) - Second, tobacco (Gujarat, Maharashtra) and cotton - the third largest in the world. The country has grown several varieties of snuff, cigarette, cigarette tobacco, for which the collection leader is the southern and western parts of the country (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat). Among the tonic tea is a significant place (first place in the world, Assam, West Bengal, the eastern foothills of the Himalayas) and coffee (Kerala).
In southern India grow castor, rubber plant, coconut palm, spices (pepper, ginger, cardamom, cloves, etc.).. India is leader in the cultivation of some tropical fruits: mango, bananas, etc.. In addition the country is the largest global producer of legal opium for the pharmaceutical trade.
The numerous cattle (one fifth of the world population), including a buffalo herd, which are used mainly as draft power. Also raised goats, sheep, pigs, camels, and poultry. The country is not only ranked first for cattle, but also the production of milk and butter. "Milk" the states are Punjab and Har'yana. Over the past years in the country was the rise in the fishing industry (eighth place in the world). Agriculture suffers great damage due to drought and floods.
Transport. There were all kinds of development transport. The length of railways is more than 60 thousand, highways - more than 2 million km (second place in the world). Rail transport is the leader for handling capacity (fourth place in the world). Makes it difficult to work that in from different width tracks. Over 50% of roads have hard cover, level of motorization in the country is extremely low (1 car on 250 inhabitants). In addition there nemehanizovanyy Shipping: velorikshi, vyu'chnyy transport.
Maritime transport provides 90% of external traffic, but the 11 international seaports of the country generally have turnover of less than One European Rotterdam. Fleet Indian is a top 20 in world.
Airports are located in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and other large cities. Pipelines transporting liquefied gas, oil, refined products. Internet users in the country just over 5 million
Foreign economic relations. Exporting countries are extremely diverse. India - a significant supplier to the world market leather and leather products, footwear, for export of manganese ore and Mica India is one of the first places in the world, exporting products oil refining, chemicals, leather products, rice, wheat, oil seeds crops, wool, jute, tea, coffee, spices, sugar cane and sugar dairy products, textiles, foodstuffs, steel, transport equipment, cement, Mining raw materials, machinery, software software. High share in exports of stores and such traditional sectors how to cut diamonds and other gemstones. Top Partners - United States, China, UAE, United Kingdom.
Imports energy, crude oil and petroleum products, Machinery, equipment, fertilizers, chemical products, gold, silver, unworked stones (especially diamonds). Major suppliers: China, U.S., Germany, Singapore. Much of the raw material for textile industry of the country are imported from Egypt and Sudan (cotton), Bangladesh (Jute), Australia (wool). The country was formed seven free zones trade.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Tera, Strip of marshy plains Podgorny Himalayas in the north-east of the Indo-Hanhskoyi plains in India and Nepal band in 30-50 km. At an altitude of 900 m, covered with wet tropical forests (Jungles: bamboo, magnolias, orchids, vines, etc.). At large spaces of surface covered with mud, covered with tall grass. Their formation associated with excessive moisture, groundwater in low drainage Podgorny Plains. In India, tera partially drained and cultivation (cultivated rice and other crops).
Economically active population, Part population engaged in socially useful activity that brings income. Unemployed UN statistics also included in economically active population. The fate of the economically active population averages over 45% in economically developed countries and to 42% those in developing countries.