§ 37. Turkey.
Area: 780.6 km2
Population:76 806 000 (2010)
Official name: Republic of Turkey
Political System: Republic
Legislature: Grand National Assembly
President: President (elected for a 7-year term)
Administrative structure: A unitary state (81 vilayyety united in 8 geographical areas)
Common religion: Sunni Muslims
Member UN, NATO
National Holiday: Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
EGP and natural resources potential. Turkey washed by the Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara and Black seas, has borders with Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria (in Asia), Bulgaria and Greece (in Europe).
The average elevation of the terrain country is more than 1000 A large part of Turkey's Anatolian plateau occupied and Armenian Highlands (d. Great Ararat, 5165 m) in the north - Pontic Mountains (up to 3937 m) in the south - the Taurus ranges (up to 3726 m). The peninsula is located within a seismically dangerous zone is often there are earthquakes that are sometimes disastrous.
Climate on domestic Highlands - continental general - subtropical Mediterranean, rainfall of 500 to 3000 mm year, their number decreases in the direction from west to east. Average January temperatures from 5 to 150S, June 15 to 320p. Main rivers - Euphrates, Tigris, Kyzyl-Irmak, Charoh, Murat et al. - Is an important source of fresh water and hydropower. Great Lakes: Van, Ace Beyshehir and Ehrydir. Is dominated by arid steppes. Outside the coastal slopes ranges (a quarter of the country) are covered with forests dominated by coniferous in the north and shrubs.
Nadra country rich in diverse minerals: oil and gas, stone and brown coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, zinc, tungsten, uranium, gold, barite, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, pumice, sulfur, clay and others.
Population. 85.7% of the population consists of Turks, but they are Kurds, Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Syrian-based Seljuks, Jews and others. Regardless of the fact that Islam is not a state religion of the country, majority of the population consider themselves Sunni Muslims (99%) major holidays which are Kurban-Bayram and Shekera-Bayram.
Life population varies between 72 and 70 years. It is placing more and more uneven traced: most live on the coastal plains, less - in the internal parts of the country. Urban population is 69%. In agriculture sector employs 29.5%, industry - 24.7%, services - 45.8 % Of the population. Major cities are Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Iskenderun, Bursa, Adana, Antalya, Trabzon.
Istanbul, Turkey's largest city, on both banks of the Bosporus near the Marmara Sea, the main commercial, industrial and cultural Center, the main port of the country. The city operates the largest international airport. Istanbul provides 60% of industrial production in the country (Mechanical engineering, chemical, cement, harchovosmakov, including tobacco, light: textile, leather and footwear, clothing, furniture, paper, glass industry). Colleges of economy, trade, fine arts, Municipal and Archeological Museum, Museum of Turkish and Islamic art, painting and sculpture, janissary, theaters, scenic bridges over Bosporus, which connects the European and Asian parts of Istanbul, the church St. Irene, Hagia Sophia church, a museum complex of Sultan Palace Topkapi and other architectural and cultural institutions make Istanbul largest cultural center.
Istanbul founded about 660 BC as Byzantium, from 330 AD named Constantinople (on behalf of the Roman Emperor Constantine), in Russian medieval literary texts - Tsarhrad. During its long history it was the capital of the Roman Empire, Byzantium, the center of the Latin Crusaders Empire, Empire Ottoman, Turkey (until October 1923).
Ankara, on October 29, 1923 the capital of Turkey, the second largest (after Istanbul) city in the country's largest political, economic and cultural center. Located at Maloaziatskomu Highlands, on the edge of the forest Anatolian Plateau at an altitude of 891 m, at the confluence of the rivers and chibouque Ankara. According to legend the city was founded in the VII century. BC fryhiyskym king Midas. The city flourished, because there were at the crossroads of caravan ways. At one time it held the Persians, then the Galatians, it was the center Roman province of Galatia, it had the Byzantines, the Arabs conquered, Crusaders, the Seljuk Turks and Ottoman Turks.
A major transport hub (near Ankara - International Airport Esenboha), shopping center, agricultural area, which specializes in producing wool Angora goats. The city is working machine building, metal working, wool, leather, cement, harchovosmakovoyi (flour, sugar, meat, etc.) glass, woodworking, and traditional handicraft production of carpets.
Universities, conservatory, theaters, museums anatoliyskyh civilizations Archeological and Ethnographic Museum, mausoleum of Ataturk, the old winding cobbled streets, the temple of Octavian, the pool and the foundation of the Roman Baths Emperor Caracalla, numerous parks and create the Presidential Palace aura of the old and at the same time a modern cultural center.
Bursa, A city in northwestern Turkey. Transportation hub, a shopping center of agricultural area (Silk, merino wool, grain), an important industrial center of enterprises of the textile (silk, cotton, wool), food, cement, car assembling and processing industry. At Bursa, in Chekyrhe located near thermal springs (47 - 780C), suitable for the treatment of rheumatism, gynecological and skin diseases.
The city was founded at the beginning of II century. BC king of Bithynia Prussia II called Prus, due to its bath city was widely known in Roman period. During their history the city destroyed by the Arabs, zavoyovuvalosya Seljuks, the Ottoman Turks, was the first capital Ottoman state. Here are the tombs of the first six sultans Ottoman who lived here with his court. In the vicinity of balneology and ski resorts, national park Mount Uludag (2443 m).
Economy. Turkey - industrial-agricultural country, economy which is characterized by averages, but changes and is growing very rapidly. The structure of GDP agriculture is 16%, industry - 31%, services - 53%. In Turkey it is better than in many other countries of South-West Asia advanced manufacturing industry. It is represented mainly light, food and steel industry. In recent years, Bourne Again rapidly developing oil refining, chemicals and diverse engineering.
More than a third of the population engaged in agriculture, completely to provide people with food and sends export a substantial list of agricultural products and finished raw materials.
In recent years considerable development were serving the industry, international tourism, finance, education and research.
Industry. Electricity production is over 100 billion kWh. hr. Most of its produce thermal power.
Among the areas heavy industryThat appeared in country in recent times, remarkably, three enterprises in the black (Iskenderun, Eregli, Istanbul) and color (Erhani) metallurgy, oil (Batman), chemicals (Samsun). Enterprises engineering focused mainly on assembling imported parts, components and mechanisms and produce cars, tractors, agricultural and military vehicles, equipment for railway transport (locomotives, cars), ships, household appliances (Refrigerators, washing machines, etc.). These industries tend to marine ports and large cities, where labor (Istanbul, Izmir).
In modern industry is widely developed traditional craft: the production of carpets, jewelry and leather goods.
Harchovosmakova Industry fully equipped domestic raw materials, textile industry specializing in manufacturing silk, woolen and cotton fabrics.
Agriculture. The main industry is agriculture the country's economy - agriculture irrigation and Beauharnais. Grow corn (Wheat, barley, millet), industrial crops (cotton, tobacco - sixth place world sugar beets, oil - sunflower oil - the third largest in the world producing olive oil, tea bush - fifth place in the world). Developed viticulture and fruit growing. Significant area is allocated for planting figs, nuts (hazelnuts - first place in the world and walnut) citrus fruits, liquorice.
Livestock grazing has been breeding goats (Angora breed), sheep, cattle, and camels are raised, donkeys, buffaloes, horses, silkworm. Developed fisheries.
Transport The country has developed all types of transport but a large coastline and the availability of convenient bays caused special development of maritime transport, which provides export and import operation. Main ports: Izmir, Izmit, Trabzon, Iskenderun, Samsun. River transport became an insignificant development, as rivers and lakes small, with rapids and often dry summer. In large cities are airports (Istanbul, Adana, Bursa, Ankara, Izmir, Antalya). There 8.7 thousand km of railways, they provide mainly transportation goods and minerals. The length of highways 430 thousand km. Building land transport difficult terrain of the country.
Oil is transported via pipeline transport. The largest of these connects areas of oil production in the east of the Iskenderun and other industrial centers east of the country.
Foreign economic relations. Export Turkey consist of agricultural products (2 / 3 value: hazelnuts, raisins, fruit, cotton, tobacco, wool, mohair) and tissues, drinks, chemical products, ferrous and nonferrous metals, clothing, food products, metal products, transport equipment. Main foreign trade partners: Germany, Great Britain, Italy, France, Russia, Spain.
Importing countries machines, chemical products, prepared food, fuel, transport equipment, rubber, paper from Russia, Germany, China, Italy, U.S., French, Arab and other countries. Significant revenue the state receives from the tourist industry, the country annually visited by more than 9 million tourists, it attracts a warm sea of
Territorial country can be divided into three parts: industrial West, East Agricultural and agro-industrial center and south.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Zoroastrianism, Religion, common in antiquity and early Middle Ages in Central Asia, Iran, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan and some countries of the Near and Middle East, remained in the Pars in India and hebriv in Iran. The name of religion was the name of the Prophet Zoroaster (Zoroaster). Sacred canon - "Avesta". Basic Principles Zoroastrianism: the juxtaposition of two "eternal beginnings" - good and evil, faith in ultimate victory of good that is embodied in the image of the supreme deity Ahura Mazda. The main role in Zoroastrian ritual plays fire.