§ 1. What and how studying geography
The emergence of geography. In the old days people could not explain the phenomena of nature, much more - the links between them. They could not understand how a light and strong wind, thunder roars and why shining lightning why sometimes rise in the sea giant waves and the earth shaking earthquakes, why plants grow and wither. To explain these phenomenon of people come up with various gods. Each of them knew his "kingdom": air forests, rivers, seas. Mother of all gods who gave birth to the sky, the sea and mountains, Ancient Greeks considered the goddess of the Earth - Gaia.
Exactly because the ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes even in the third century. BC Starting to study the Earth, called his training - Geography. In this speech, he combined the name of the goddess of the Earth with the word "graph"- Write. So, the word "geography" can be translated as "zemleopys. Since the study of the Earth or its parts became known as geography. So consider the geography of ancient doctrines, because it appeared more than 2 500 years ago.
Modern Geography. Now geography - the science that studies and explains the distribution of phenomena in space - on land, continents, countries, or certain Human points. It seeks answers the question "where?" and "why" (ie, why the phenomenon occurs where they there?). Geography also reveals the links between human world and the world Nature. It explains how to make better use of natural wealth, what to do that nature is impoverished, that forests have not disappeared, not zmilily rivers have lost fertility soils.
Modern Geography rozhaluzylasya and turned on the system sciences. It distinguish physical geography and economic and social geography. Physiography studies nature of the Earth (from the Greek "fizys- Nature). Social and economic geography study population and economic activity (Ie the Earth as a human habitation). Each of these main branches of geography divided in turn into separate science. So geography - a system sciences, which study the diversity of nature Earth, location, population and economic activity, the interaction of nature and humanity.
Sources of geographical knowledge. Apart textbook, sources of information serve as gazetteers and encyclopedias, maps and atlases. Saturated geographic information magazines and newspapers.
Many new, useful and interesting can be found in radioand television: weather, notification of natural disasters, natural dyvovyzhi, culture of different population of others. Now for the necessary use of geographical knowledge Internet services - global computer network. With its help you can minutes to share geographic information - the mapping, text, video, sound.
Methods of Geographical Research. To gain geographic information and knowledge using various methods. The oldest is descriptive method research. It is to describe the object (where is as varied with time as influenced by other objects, etc.). Description is based on observation of phenomena and processes. This method and are now a major. Been available and expeditionary method. Word "Expedition" means "trip". Expedition - a trip for a group of people investigation of certain objects or phenomena. The material collected in the expeditions, forms basis of geography. Based on it, the science develops.
The historical method enables figure out how to have evolved over time and the objects and phenomena. Literary method is the study of literature - всohoThat has been written with the subject. Mapping Method research is to determine the location objects and applying them to the card. A good reading maps, the researcher can get much information. The new methods are Aerospace - Studying the Earth's surface by images of airplanes and spacecraft. Via design methodUsing computers, involve changes in the environment.
1. What the word "geography"?
2. Studying modern geography?
3. Tell us information can be obtained from geographical maps?
4. By using the Internet to find out more about the cartographic method of research.