§ 20. Ukrainian Hetman state in the systemInternational Relations
1. What were the features of international relationsWestern Europe in the middle of XVII century.? 2. Describe the religioussituation in Europe at that time. 3. What are European countries that belongedto Catholic and Protestant camps.
1. PlaceHetman in international relations of contemporary Europe. Events, which1648 deployed on the Ukrainian lands within the Commonwealth,aroused great interest of governments in power in Western and CentralEurope. But in Europe, where a year early Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi Ukrainian Warpeople completed the first all-European Thirty Years' War, remaineddetermining the religious factor. That is why the attitude to events in Ukraine significantlydiffered, depending on the belonging of a Catholic or Protestantcamps.
Most of the Catholic camp - France, SpanishKingdom, the Austrian Habsburgs and the Papal States, the principality of SouthGermany - once took a negative position on natsionalnovyzvolnoyistruggle of Ukrainian people and supported its ally the Commonwealth.Most actively expressed their rejection of events in Ukraine representativesPapal Rome. Yes, John Torres, the Papal Nuncio in 1648-1652 biennium,Rome reporting on events in Ukraine and characterizing the actions of Polish troopswrote that it "our victory" or "our failure" and the case for which the fightingon these lands, King of the Commonwealth, deemed the Catholic Church.
Terms and concepts
Nuncio - Representative of the Pope at the government of anystate.
The Pope called on Catholic Innokentiy X stateRech help in the fight with Ukrainian Cossacks and warnedPolish government to the smallest concessions to the Cossacks. Yes, sent Innokentiy XKing and the Diet of the Commonwealth such a dramatic protest against the conclusion Zborivagreements, Jan Kazimierz dare not announce this document Diet. Popecalmed down only when the Polish government explained to him that the agreement is Zborivskanecessary step and keep her Commonwealth is not going.
Austrian Habsburgs, weakened by the Thirty Years War andconfrontation with Protestant Sweden, were unable to provide armedassistance to the Commonwealth, but allowed her to gain in their voyakivnaymantsivestates.
Among Catholic countries was a positive attitudeevents in the Venetian Republic, Ukraine, seeing the Ukrainian Cossacksimportant and useful for you anti-Turkish force. After signing the agreement ZborivVenetians tried to create anti-Turkish alliance with the Cossacks. Summer1650 that proposal to the Venetian embassy came KhmelnytskyAlberto Vimina. However, in the then situation of the Cossacks against the performance of the Turkish sultanwould be suicide, and Hetman refused.
Among the Protestant camp- Sweden, England, Holland and the principalities of North Germany - dominatedpositive attitude to the Ukrainian struggle against the Commonwealth. They wereinterested in weakening the latter as one of the largest Catholic country.Sweden, as a result of victory in the Thirty Years War, became a great influence onEuropean policy. This position prevented the Austrian Habsburgs Swedenprovide armed assistance to the Commonwealth. The Swedish government watchingdevelopments in Ukraine and styahuvav troops to the Polish border, hopinginvade a country weakened by war. In 1655 Sweden started the war withThe Commonwealth, most of which was occupied by the army in Ukraine.
Using a weakening of the Commonwealth managed ElectorFridrihVilhelm Brandenburg, which is presently ruled by a combinedBrandenburzkoPrusskoyu state. Prussia was a vassal of the King of the Commonwealth.He refused to perform their duties vassal, to appear on the side of Kingwars and obtained dismissal of Prussia zpid Polish dependence.
The most friendly attitude among the Protestant Statesevents in Ukraine observed in England. The leader of the English Revolution, OliverCromwell saw in the liberation war "Cossack General" Khmelnitskogo againstCommonwealth Catholic important area of European anti-"Latynnykamy" and "papist."
Preserved a letter written by representativesBritish government Khmelnitskogo Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi during the war. Somestudies suggest that its author was O. Cromwell. It Hetman titledas heneralisimus troops and ancient Greek religion and the church, the ownerall Cossacks, fear, and shredders Polish nobility, conquerorfortresses, extirpator Roman priests, pagan persecutor.
Cromwell put forward the idea of a "big antyrymskoyi,antyhabsburzkoyi, antykontrreformatsiynoyi coalition of European countries, which,England also had to enter Sweden, Moscow State and the Hetman.
2. OutdoorHetman policy. During the war Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi Khmelnytskyi carriedactive foreign policy - in correspondence with foreign governments, sentAmbassadors to other countries, took foreign embassies and more. The main task of foreignHetman policy was to create conditions for the successful completion of the warCommonwealth and strengthening the position of Hetman. Thus Brusselswas necessary to consider the situation around the Ukrainian lands in the middleXVII. Rzeczpospolita, Muscovy and the Ottoman Empire were notinterested in the origin of Hetman, believing that it would violate the balance of powerbetween them, and both had their own claims to Ukrainian lands.
External links Hetmanate during B.Khmelnytsky
Kingdom of Sweden
Austrian Habsburg monarchy
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
In foreign policy chief Hetmanate were severalareas:
— ReceivingMilitary assistance for the conduct of armed struggle with the Commonwealth. With thispurpose during the war has concluded Hetman military assistance from the Crimean Khanate,Muscovy and the principality of Transylvania.
— Weakening SpeechesCommonwealth, and in preventing attempts to form unions antiukrainskie. Yesduring a meeting in Kiev in late 1648 with the Patriarch of JerusalemPaisius that was bound for Moscow, inc contributed their efforts to break PolyanovskohoPeace between the Commonwealth and Muscovy 1634 He asked Paisiosand his special envoy, who sent with him to Moscow to do thisbest. Getman proposed an alliance against Poland and the Swedish governmentElector of Brandenburg.
— Acquiredderzhavyprotektora (defender) Hetmanate. During the war waged inctalks about the possibility of Ukrainian hetman state underprotection of the Turkish sultan or tsar.
— Strengthening the position Hetmanate as a newly independent state. ForThis goal Khmelnitsky received ambassadors, bargain, supporteddiplomatic correspondence with foreign owners, informing them about developments inUkraine. He has made the Turkish sultan agreement under which Ukrainianmerchants were allowed to freely float the Black Sea and 100 years free fromduty. Contemporaries reported that in the Hetman's residence in Chyhyrynboth ambassadors were: Austria, two Swedish, two of Transylvania,Turkish, Tatar, three from Moldova, three from Moldavia, the Polish king,Queen Polish, Lithuanian and Muscovite. Obtain recognition of otherStates Hetman Khmelnitsky its authority would wedlock son of Timoshadaughter of Vasile Lupu, a legitimate Moldovan ruling dynasty. Moreover,the second daughter of Mr. Lupu was married to a Lithuanian prince Radzyvil. ThroughHetman this marriage also expected to provide at least neutralityLithuania to continue their fight with Poland.
3. The relationship betweenUkrainian state and Muscovy. Starting a war with the Commonwealth, Bogdan Khmelnitskyunderstood the necessity of maintaining good relations with the Moscow State.Firstly, if the performance of the Moscow military ally of Poles in their fight againstUkrainian, for the latter it would have catastrophic consequences. Second, inthat time the world was crucial belonging to one religion.Ukrainian regarded themselves as belonging together with the Russians to oneOrthodox people expect from their brothers in faith assist in the war against the governmentCatholic Poland. As a result, the Ukrainian society in the years NatsionalnovyzvolnoyiWar spread pro-Moscow sentiment.
У 1648-1653 biennium Mr HetmanInc constantly maintained ties with the ruling circles of Moscowstate. Immediately after the battle of Korsun Hetman sent a letter to MoscowTsar Alexei Mikhailovich, reported their first victory of the Cossacks and tried to enlisthis support in the war against the Poles. The situation was quite complicated. AlliesKhmelnitsky were Crimean Tatars, who were enemies of the Moscow State. ThingCommonwealth and Muscovy combined Polyanovskyy peace treaty in 1634 Governmentthe latter would not violate it. After the rebellion on the border withUkraine focused Muscovite forces that could, if requestedPolish government's move to the offensive against the Cossacks. After getting MoscowGovernment letter Khmelnytsky planned trip to Ukraine was abolished.
December 30, 1648 Hetmansent to the Moscow embassy, headed by Colonel S.Muzhylovsky seek the provision of military assistance andZaporizhia Army as part of Chernihiv, Kyiv, Bratslav,Podolsk, Volyn provinces and Mozyr county Muscovite tsar "underhis hand. " It was first recorded in the detected sources requestKhmelnitsky go under the protection of the Moscow State. However, MoscowGovernment, through their own unwillingness to go to war with Poland, refused to discussissue of military aid. It was stated that only after the incand the Cossacks themselves freed zpid Polish authorities, they may, ifwant, go to nationalize tsar.
In the years have repeatedly reiterated their hetmanwillingness to accept protection tsar, but he did not hasten to giveresponse and was observing the situation in Ukraine. In mid-1650Moscow accused the government weakened by war with the Cossacks in the CommonwealthPolyanovskoho systematic violation of the contract and ripped it.
From August 1651 to May 1653 Moscow almostcontinuously worked Ukrainian embassy, who were on the order of Hetmannegotiations, seeking agreement to the Hetman under the "sovereign's hand." InJune 1653 Inc Moscow warned the party that ifdelaying negotiations take protection of the Turkish sultan.
October 1, 1653 onconvened in Moscow Zemsky Sobor agreeddecision: "The army Zaporozhian the city and the land take during the Sovereignhigh hand and a declaration of war the Commonwealth. To implement thisdecision to set sail Hetmanate special Moscow embassy, led by boyarBasil Buturlin.
4. Ukraine, MoscowContract 1654 To address the question of acceptance of Moscow protectionordered by the king Khmelnytsky January 8, 1654 was convened in Pereiaslavcouncil of war. It was attended by officers and representatives of all regiments.After hearing the speech of the hetman, the board endorsed his proposal to adoptMoscow nationality faith brother.
Getman, officers and ambassadors went to Moscow AssumptionCollegiate Church Pereiaslav. Inc planned that there both parties with theEuropean tradition, has taken the oath. However, the confusion happened. Buturlinsaid that the king of his subjects did not swear. Inc uladnav conflictsaying that the Army Zaporozhian agree to take the oath.
After the council in Pereiaslav Muscovite envoys headed to the bridgeHetman and towns where, according to their data, the oath made 127 338 people.However, among the Cossack officers refused to swear Ivan Bohun, Ivan Sirkoand others. For a long time would not swear Zaporizhzhya Sich Cossacks.Unhappy with the oath-taking were among the Cossacks Kropyv'yanskoho, Korsunskogo,Poltava, Uman and Bratslav regiments. With "great reluctantly,unfounded fear of limiting their rights, vowed aboveOrthodox clergy. Argue swear Kyiv Metropolitan SylvesterKosovo.
У February 1654 to MoscowUkrainian ambassadors arrived and gave the king "pleading paper on the rights of allLittle people. " Agreed during negotiations the option agreement wasAnnounced in March and took the name "Marcharticles, original of which up to now been preserved.
According to the agreement reached, the king promised to keepand never to violate the rights and privileges of Zaporizhia Army granted PolishKings and Grand Dukes of Lithuania. Was installed 60000th numberCossack Registry. Taxes were collected Ukrainian officers and send them toroyal treasury. Hetman and the officers elected by Cossacks on the board. Hetmanallowed to communicate with other states only if the message of the king. Intercoursewith the Polish king and the Turkish sultan prohibited without the king's permission.Remained the old division into states, each of which retained their rights and privileges.Litigate Ukrainian population was based on local laws and customs. Poststhe administrative apparatus zamischuvalysya local people.Confirmed by the Metropolitan of Kiev and Law of the Orthodoxclergy on estates that they owned.
Ukrainian side acknowledged the king the right to keepKiev military commander of the garrison and place their troops on the border withCommonwealth. If Tatar attacks on Ukrainian land foreseenOrganization of joint Ukraine-Moscow hikes. Moscow Governmentobliged to go to war with the Commonwealth in the spring of 1654
The historic significance of the Moscow-Ukraine intergovernmental agreement1654 was the fact that she legally recorded act of separation andindependence from the Commonwealth troops Zaporizhzhya and design on itprotection tsar. She opened a real prospect for Ukraineby the Moscow State bring war with the Commonwealth and to victoryto unite all Ukrainian lands into one state. The agreement was a turningpoint in the history of Ukraine, Russia and eastern Europe.
- Formation of Ukrainian Hetman state wasremarkable event of international relations, which changed the balance of power between the statesTsentralnoShidnoyi Europe.
- Thanks to a flexible foreign policy Bohdan Khmelnytskywar years Ukraine has been able to create and maintain their own state.
- Relations with Moscow were importantfor Hetman. Help the Moscow government was necessary Hetman toprove to win the struggle for liberation zpid power of the Commonwealth. Ukraine-MoscowInterstate Agreement of 1654 legally defined transition under HetmanMoscow's protectorate.
1. How to treat Hetmanate Europe, adherentsa Catholic camp? 2. Which of the Protestant camp, the most friendlybelonged to Ukraine? 4. Name the state with which to supportforeign relations during the Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky. 5. What wasmain foreign policy objectives in the war Hetman? 6. When firstKhmelnytsky addressed the tsar to accept "under his" MilitaryZaporozhian? 7. What decision was approved by the Zemsky Sobor in Moscow on October 11653? 8. When was Pereiaslavs'ka Help? 9. What is "The March article"?
10. Describe the attitude of Catholic Europeto Hetmanate. 11. Give examples of support and friendly attitudeHetman Protestant states. 12. Describe the main trendsHetman foreign policy during the war. 13. How has the war inrelationship between the Hetmanate and Muscovy? 14. As clearance wasMoscow's protectorate over Hetmanate?
15. Make a detailed plan of the Ukrainian hetmanstate in international relations. "