violation of territorial integrity UKRAINIAN STATE - Hetman
- Andrusovo contract - one of the hardest events of the second half XVII. The contract loss showed territorial integrity of Ukrainian state, and fixing uzakonyvshy violent division of Ukrainian lands between Poland and Muscovy.
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
Khmelnytsky and Yu signed the Moscow government Pereiaslav articles.
Chudniv military campaign. Conclusion Slobodyshche treatise.
Cossack (black) board Nezhine. Proclamation of Hetman Ivan Briukhovetsky.
Hetmanship I. Briukhovetsky in Left Bank Ukraine.
Hetmanship Teterya `Right Bank Ukraine.
signing of Moscow Ivan Briukhovetskyi articles.
elected hetman Doroshenko right-bank bands.
1667, January 30
Andrusiv truce between Moscow and the Commonwealth. End Muscovite-Polish war.
Yuri Khmelnitsky was the youngest child of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and his first wife Anna Somko. Hetman received a good education at home, was well acquainted with the Scriptures, knew several languages - Greek, Latin, Polish. Studied Yuri Khmelnitsky in Kiev-Mohyla Academy, but not for long, because due to worsening health Hetman son returned to Chygyryn where he continued his studies at home.
hetmanycha name in the sources mentioned increasingly after 1653, when the death of his older brother Timosha he became the sole heir to Bogdan. Old Hetman prepared the ground for transfer of mace George, including 16 appointed acting hetman summer son in a responsible trekking. But as they say in the proverb, to be mace head. Yuri Khmelnitsky could become a good scientist, a writer, but was quite incapable of the role of Hetman and military figure.
Paul Teteria came from Kiev Ukrainian nobility. He was born in the 20 st century XVII. His education, became a subscription (clerk) in Lutsk hrodskomu court. In 1648 joined the Bohdan Khmelnytsky. From 1649 - Pereyaslavs'kyi regimental clerk, from 1653 - Pereyaslavs'kyi colonel. Paul had the remarkable ability Teteria diplomat, for which he particularly admired Bogdan Khmelnitsky. While in Chyhyryn of the hetman, he participated in almost all diplomatic negotiations. Since 1649, he was headed to the embassy Transylvanian Prince George (Dyerdya) II RI am his widow - daughter of Bogdan Khmelnitsky Catherine.
Getman YURI HMELNITSKY. Pereyaslav treaty in 1659
as hetman Yuri Khmelnitsky elected September 28, 1659
- Yuri Khmelnitsky Hetman his decided to start a new agreement with Moscow.
- He sought equal and mutually beneficial terms, so that you can preserve the independence of the Ukrainian state in confederation with Russia.
- But the talks, held October 17, 1659 in Pereiaslav had undesirable results for Ukraine. Pressure Moscow magistrates and 40000th of Moscow Yuri Khmelnytsky led troops and officers to sign the option agreement offered by the king's diplomats, military leaders.
- It tsar representatives resorted to brutal lie, giving your child as having made their Bogdan Khmelnitsky.
Pereyaslav treaty in 1659
agreement concluded Yuri Khmelnitsky, unlike the contract in 1654, was unequal.
- Moscow magistrates received the right to come to the camps not only in Kyiv, but also to Pereiaslav Nizhyn, Chernigov, and Bratslav Uman.
- Hetman's government banned the independent foreign policy, namely: to conclude international agreements, receive foreign ambassadors and others.
- Kyiv Metropolitan had to admit the supremacy of the Patriarch of Moscow (Ukrainian Orthodox Church has rejected this article as wrongful).
- forbidden without the king's permission to re-elect the hetman, and declare war and send armies to help neighboring states.
- Hetman lost the right to appoint and dismiss general officers and colonels.
So Pereyaslav agreement in 1659 secured changes in the Ukrainian-Moscow political relations. Ukrainian state lost its independence, becoming an autonomous part of Muscovy. Although autonomy was then still quite broad, of tsarist clearly showed that the attack on the independence of Ukraine will continue.
Chudniv CAMPAIGN 1660 AND CONCLUSION Slobodyshche Treatise
- next foreign policy measures Yuri Khmelnytsky became campaign Ukrainian-Moscow forces in Western Ukraine. campaign goal was the liberation of Western Ukraine under Polish rule.
- obvious, however, was the fact that two other party transactions - Poland and Muscovy, who broke a truce and renewed hostilities in order to achieve complete domination of the Ukraine, will make efforts to prevent the unification and strengthening of Ukraine.
- Major events occurred in the campaign Chudnov in Volhynia. They ended in a crushing defeat of Russian troops, surrender Hetman Khmelnitsky, Yu signing October 7 Slobodyshche treatise.
Slobodyshche treatise in 1660
- Treatise Hadiach developed on the basis of the contract, but its text has undergone significant changes.
- been removed article on the Grand Duchy of Rus. Anticipated return of the Polish gentry and magnates of all estates in Ukraine.
- Hetman denied the right of foreign relations, he was obliged to provide military assistance to Poland in its wars with other countries.
Ukrainian state by only treatise became an autonomous part of the Commonwealth. Slobodyshche treatise and therefore did not bring peace Ukraine. The internal situation of the Cossack state even more complicated, because there was a threat to turn the Ukrainian territory on the scene a brutal struggle between Muscovy and the Commonwealth.
implications Chudniv campaign and signing Slobodyshche treatise
- new agreement with Poland was not accepted much of the left bank Cossacks.
- rank and file Cossacks and officers refused to recognize the power of Yuri Khmelnitsky.
- Left shelves oath to the king. Movement against Hmelnychenka headed by his uncle How Somko , who wanted to take hetman.
- Somko was not the only contender for the hetman's mace. Hetman and sought Nizhyn Colonel Vasily Zolotarenko.
Moscow successfully exercised the internecine struggle in Ukraine. Keeping that one, the other contender, the Moscow government zahostryuvav situation and also furthered his authority on the Left. But most liked the Muscovite tsar Ivan overzealous Bryukhovetsky - then ataman Zaporizhzhya Sich.
did not want to abandon the Ukrainian lands and Poland.
Intervention of other states in various opposition groups against the Cossack hetman's mace for the division of Ukraine led to the Left Bank and of the right were fighting among themselves: one on the side of Moscow, the other - on the side of Poland. Therefore, Ukraine has started a new civil war.
Hetman Pavlo cock, ITS ACTIVITIES (1663-1665 biennium)
- desire to suppress statements antyhetmanski 1661-1662 biennium ended in failure.
- Young finally decided to abandon the mace.
- convened in early January 1663 in Chyhyryn council elected hetman Pavlo Teteria, Yuri Khmelnitsky and soon became a monk under the name of Gideon and became abbot of the monastery in Korsun .
After refusing Yuri Khmelnitsky Hetman from 1663 shared the national territory of Ukraine into right and left Hetmanate.
- On right-bank shelves by Hetman Teteria tried to influence Poland, seeking to restore and establish its authority there.
- Cossacks Left increasingly fall under the authority of Moscow, which wanted to put on hetmancy profitable contender.
- backed by Poland, Paul Teteria hoped to extend its authority on the Left Bank.
- trip to the Left Bank Ukraine, which started in autumn 1663, was unsuccessful. On the Right Bank acquired a dimension antyhetmanske and anti-Polish uprising, which joined the Cossacks, and some left-bank colonels.
- Such developments complicated the situation Paul Teteria.
- For participation in the plot were arrested a year ago elected Metropolitan of Kiev and Archimandrite Joseph Tukals'kyy Onufrievsky Holy Monastery of Gideon (George) Khmelnitsky, Colonel Gregory Gulyanitskii, which will soon imprisoned in the former capital of the Crusaders Teutonic Knights - Malbork (Mariyenburzi) and also I. Vyhovskyy which condemned to death and executed. Punitive forces have not added the popularity of Paul Teteria. The gap between him and the Cossacks and deepening of the Polish commander Stephen Chernetsky.
- In such circumstances, in July 1665 Teteria fled to Poland.
- Hetman's mace was Peter Doroshenko, the final approval of which was held at the General Council in January 1666 in Chyhyryn.
struggle for power the Left Bank UKRAINE. Hetman Ivan BRYUHOVETSKY
- in Left Bank Ukraine in April 1662 Colonel Pereyaslavs'kyi How Somko convened Kozeltse officers' council.
- Somka Council elected hetman. However, he has held this position only a month, the Moscow government for not trusting Somku not recognize the legality of his election.
- Moscow preferred to see Ataman Hetman of Zaporozhye John Briukhovetsky.
- building a working relationship with Moscow's influential officials, he managed to convince the king in his commitment to the Moscow throne.
- resorting to tricks menpleasers the most influential persons easily agreeing to concessions in Ukraine's relations with Moscow, he received what had no other contenders for the hetman of Left-Bank Ukraine - support the tsar, and hence military assistance.
- Bryukhovetsky realized that no matter how great was Moscow's support, and still choose to have his Cossacks hetman. Considering the political situation, he bowed to the false promises of their side Sich, Cossack bottoms and narrow-mindedness.
- 17-18 June 1663 Nezhine met council, attended along with the Cossacks, peasants and urban dwellers. Relying on the support of the Cossack rank and file, who strongly opposed the officers and troops under pressure from Moscow John Bryukhovetsky won the Somkom.
- Dostupyvshys to power, quickly disavowed Bryukhovetsky election promises.
- masterful and ambitious, Bryukhovetsky not give up plans of reuniting Ukrainian lands under one mace. This convinces his part in the hostilities 1663-1665 gg
Moscow Treaty in 1665
The work of John Bryukhovetsky relied on support from Moscow. He made considerable concessions to the Moscow government. Bryukhovetsky In 1665 - the first of the Ukrainian Hetman - went to Moscow to see the radiant eyes of the sovereign ".
He agreed to sign a new contract.
- Moscow garrison and magistrates have the right to be in almost all major cities.
- tax collection relied on Moscow's magistrates and dues have come to the king's treasury.
- Elections could take place only with the permission of the king and in the presence of the king's representative.
- pozbavlyavsya Hetman government the right to conduct independent foreign policy.
Moscow article substantially restrict the autonomy of the Left Bank Hetman, reinforced its dependence on the tsar.
Meanwhile, Muscovy and the Commonwealth have begun talks. Ceased they signed January 30, 1667 in the village. Andrus (near Smolensk) truce.
military operations between these countries ceased. Vstanovlyuvalosya truce to 13.5 years.
Under the rule
Muscovy remained Left Bank Ukraine, she returned Siverschyna, Smolensk and two years - Kyiv.
for Poland were tied to land right-bank Ukraine and Belarus.
Zaporizhzhya Sich pass under the control of both countries.
Mostly Andrusovo contract that dealt with Ukraine was signed secretly, without approval from the Ukrainian side.
He perekreslyuvav most achievements of the Ukrainian people won nearly 20-year struggle for national liberation, and secured to legitimize violent division of Ukrainian lands between Poland and Muscovy.
consequences of events late 1950 - early 60's XVII century. for Ukraine
there was civil war. During the reign of Hetman's mace simultaneously fighting several groups of applicants from different foreign policy orientation.
- result of constant interference in Ukraine's internal affairs of other states, bringing their military forces were almost continuous military actions, which result in entire regions spustoshuvalysya, collapsed the already deserted farm, people were dying en masse.
- Cossack Ukraine lost independence and economic power.
- But the gravest consequence of the period of Ukrainian history - the loss of territorial integrity of Ukraine. Sky, which would unite Ukraine, divided Hetmanate the Left Bank and of the right.
buckled Andrusovo agreement violent division of Ukrainian lands between Muscovy and Poland very uskladnyuvav Ukrainian liberation movement - in fact, since to build an independent state had to overcome resistance to two, hostile to each other, states. Being a part of various states under various crops threatened to split the Ukrainian people. That is why the most important tasks of the Ukrainian steel derzhavtsiv Andrusovo cancellation of the contract and unification of Ukraine under the rule of a hetman.