§ 3-4. Church life of the second half of XVI century.
1. What was the Orthodox church inUkrainian lands in the Polish Kingdom and Grand DuchyLithuania in the second half of XIV-XV centuries.? 2. If only forEast Slavic lands Kiev Metropolitanate divided on Moscow and Kiev?
1. SituationOrthodox Church. XVI century. researchers called a dark era in historyUkrainian Orthodox Church. During this period the church life in Ukrainedeveloped by foreign and gentile Polish-Lithuanian authorities. While proclaimingtolerant attitude toward Orthodoxy, the rights and privileges of the Orthodoxchurch, there were significant reasons that caused a deep crisis of church life,demoralized and dezorhanizuvaly it. However, during this period developedfollowing features of Ukrainian Orthodoxy as active participation in the lifechurch laymen and convergence of church life, spiritual education and schools,forced to resist the offensive of Latin culture, Catholicism and Reformationmovements.
Negative impact on the Orthodox churchexisting in the Polish Kingdom and Grand Duchy of Lithuania right of patronage or "right feed."According to him, the issue of appointments to the metropolitan and episcopal chairdepended on the Grand Duke of Lithuania and the Polish king. After the Lublinunion situation deteriorated. Polish kings were the law of patronage, "givingspiritual bread and giving spiritual capital, appointing bishops andArchimandrite (Abbot) for money. In fact he got the position,who paid more for it. Kings provide positions in the Orthodox Church secularpeople (nobility, military) for the debts of the state these people are different seniority,request to close to the royal court of others.
The right of patronage of the Orthodox churches and monasteriesused on private land magnates and gentry. It was to the rightproperty based on their churches and monasteries in the manors, villages andcities. Priests in parishes such simple people are not elected but appointedpatronamyshlyahtychamy for the "right feed." This life of the churchcommunity depended on the religion of the owner or the estate of the city and itsattitudes to Orthodoxy. Magnates and gentry managed churches and monasteriesbased on ownership: laid, traded, sold, leased,was given as dowry and so on.
Polish Orthodox Church authorities gave much lessHuman versus Catholic. Orthodox bishops not allowed, unlikefrom Catholic, to attend the Senate - the upper house of the Diet. Orthodoxclergy, unlike the Catholic, had to pay taxes. Althoughfrom 1573 Polish kings are obliged to follow a policy of religiousreligious tolerance, in fact, the Polish government and the Catholic clergy negativelyattitude toward orthodoxy, seeing in it an obstacle for the advancement of Catholicismthe East.
2. Reform economy andCounter-Reformation movement in Ukraine. In the XVI century. Europe was hit Reformation- Church-religious and socio-political trends against Catholicchurch. With the spread of Reformation ideas in Europe is concerned awakeningnational consciousness and cultural development of individual nations and ofProtestantism.
Terms and concepts
Protestantism - One of the largest (along with Catholicism andOrthodoxy) trends in Christianity, which arose during the Reformation in the XVIArt. His initial forms were Lutheranism, Calvinism and Anglicanism.
In 30-40-ies XVI century. from Europe through Poland toUkrainian land became subject to reform economy doctrine. One of these studieswas Calvinism. The founder of the doctrine JeanCalvin believed that human destiny is determined beforehand by God, calledwork, be economical and accumulate wealth. In Ukraine the communityCalvinist occur in large landowners' estates or cities that hadmagnates. The first took Calvinism aristocratic families Potockiand Radziwill. They were joined by exceptionalOrthodox families (Vishnevetskaya, Khotkevych Sapieha). Community Calvinistalso appeared in Transcarpathia, Kholm, Podlasie, Przemysl and Belzlands. Another stream of Protestantism LutheranismOnspread across Ukraine has not acquired.
In the second half of XVI century. , Galicia, VolynKyiv region and tail spread Arianism - Protestantdirection, which recognized only the supporters of God the Father, denying itChristian doctrine of the Trinity.
Feature Reformation movements was that theyextended to large segments of the Ukrainian population. According to historianHrushevsky of Ukrainian lands was about 100 smallProtestant community, established as rule by the nobility and not alwaysUkrainian. The spread of Protestantism at a time slowed penetrationCatholicism in Ukraine. The basic principles of the Reformation (release zpid powerRome church to approach people, vernacular translation of the Bible) UkrainianOrthodox population saw a means of anti-Catholicism, adaptingreform economy ideas to their needs.
Protestants struggle with the Catholic Church to becomeorthodox model for updating their own church organization. ImpactReformation ideas occurs in the activity OrthodoxfraternitiesWho tried to promote the renewal of church life.
Another important result of the dissemination of ideas of the ReformationUkrainian lands was the appearance of translations of the Scriptures. In particular,1556-1561 biennium Volyn in Ukrainian was issued PeresopnitskeGospel.
Peresopnitske Gospel (1556-1561)
In the 60's XVI century. becoming more common in Ukraine Counter - The movement launched by the Catholic Church foragainst the Reformation. In 1569 supported by the Polish authorities on the territoryUkraine started work "Society of Jesus" (OrderJesuits). Thanks to the hard work of the Jesuits, supportedPolish authorities and their supporters began many magnates and gentry, theyconverted to Catholicism (Radziwill, Khotkevych Sapieha). In 70 to 80 yearsXVI century. in Ukrainian lands Jesuits opened their schools, where combinedfairly high level of teaching with the spread of Catholicism.
3. OrthodoxBrotherhood. In XV-XVII centuries. in Ukrainian lands rozhortavsyabrotherhood movement associated with the activity generated Orthodox burghersfraternities.
Terms and concepts
Brotherhood - Religious and kulturnoprosvitnytskisociety caused by the burghers of the Orthodox Church parishes (parishes)Ukraine in the XV-XVII centuries.
First Orthodox commoners, creating the modelcraft shops fraternity guided charitable purpose - to care aboutconstruction and maintenance of the church to arrange charitable dinners for poorprepare the church ceremony, to assist patients and others.
In the XVI century. deployment in a violentcatholization and national oppression of the Ukrainian Orthodox activityfraternities has changed. They became defend the Orthodox population.Congregant approached with complaints to the Polish administration of the courts,sent requests to the delegation of the King. However, the Brotherhood sought to cleansechurch from people unworthy clergyman, and update it. They wereeducational activities: the school opened, typography, collecting library.
The first fraternity - Annunciation(1542) and Nicholas (1544) - havein. In the second half of XVI century. became influential DormitionStavropigia Brotherhood in. By law stavropihiyi it directly pidporyadkovuvalosyathe Patriarch of Constantinople, not the local Orthodox bishops.Lviv brotherhood had the right to superiority over other brotherhoods and controlclergy. He belonged to the Lviv Brotherhood printing house, where he worked in Moscowtypographer Ivan Fyodorov. Around 1585 inLviv Brotherhood came to school children and townspeople priests. Itbrothers kept the money. The Brotherhood organized in Lvivshpytalprytulok for disabled, engineered Assumption Church.
Ensemble of the Assumption Church(Modern look)
In Ukraine the law had stavropihiyi:
* Lavra (since 1589),
* Lviv Dormition Brotherhood (from 1589)
* Kyiv Epiphany Brotherhood (from 1620),
* Manyavsky Skit (since 1620),
* Lutsk Exaltation of the Cross Fellowship (since 1623),
* Mezhyhirska Spasopreobrazhenskyy monastery (from 1687).
The Lviv Dormition Brotherhood wasexample for other cities of the Ukrainian Orthodox. At the end of XVI - the beginningXVII. Orthodox brotherhoods were in Przemysl, Rohatyn, Ternopil, Lutsk,Kremenets, ship Cherry, Kiev and other Ukrainian cities.
4. Prerequisitesconclusion of the Brest Church Union. European government and churchofficials have repeatedly discussed the restoration of Christian unitychurch. Interest in this question is particularly increased in the deploymentCounter-Reformation. The Catholic Church has stepped up its efforts to expand influencein the East to unite Catholics and Orthodox, under the auspices of the papalthrone. In the Commonwealth idea of unification (union) of the Orthodox and Catholicchurches promoted the Jesuits. In 1577 Polish Jesuit preacher Peter Complaint published a book on the unity of the church of God under one...», pastor in which he argued the necessity of merging the two churches.
Sermon P. Complaints
The question of church union representatives discussed the PopeRome of the Ukraine-Belarus Orthodox notables. Overall, it favorablyreferred to the possible merger, provided that it will be based onequality. Through the union they wanted to upgrade the Orthodoxchurches, bring it to the needs of time.
Ukraine-Belarus OrthodoxBishops, who shared the Uniate mood, saw a way to unite to overcomecrisis Orthodox Church and rehabilitation in general. They believed thatthus get rid of embarrassing for clergy depending torhovoremisnychohopeople united in brotherhood. Orthodox Union will support the achievement of actualequality in the rights of Catholics in the Commonwealth, the Orthodox willhierarchs, as a Catholic, to get seats in the Senate.
The Polish government strongly supported the aspirations of the UniateOrthodox hierarchs, believing that only faith is a factor in strengthening the state.Church union was considered, first as a way to complete consolidationUkrainian and Belarusian lands, and second, transitional phase to a cleanCatholicism and, finally, as a means to the denationalization of Ukrainian and Belorussian,as associated with the Church Romanization and Polonization.
Ukrainian society were also opponentsassociation of churches, headed by the Prince -John Constantine Ostrog.At first he treated the union favored. Prince and his supporters believed that theunion must enter the Eastern church, and association was held on the basisequality of Orthodox and Catholic churches. However, the realization thatpower of the Commonwealth and representatives of the Pope seeking otherDuke turned the enemy of the union.
-John Constantine Ostrog
5. Religious Councilsat Brest 1596 and movements hrekokatolytskoyi church. At the insistencePope Polish king SigismundIII convened a council in the town of Brest, where the ceremony was heldproclamation of the union. To participate in the work came from its metropolitanbishops. October 16, 1596 Cathedral started.
Sigismund III Vase
However, early supporters of the union of churches andtraditional orthodoxy did not find a common language and divided into two separatecathedrals. Opponents of the union on a separate Orthodox Cathedral sentencedMetropolitan Michael Romance activity and those bishops who have accepted the union. Inturn, the Metropolitan and bishops loyal to him in his cathedral officially approvedAct of Union of Orthodox and Catholic churches.
Under the Union of Brest, the Orthodox Churchkept the Eastern rite, the Church Slavonic language, the right to hold electiveMetropolitan and bishops, the Julian calendar and the right to marry for lowerclergy. At the same time recognized the supremacy of the pope as the First Hierarchwhole Christian church and taken as Catholic dogma.
As a result, the Union of Brest in the Ukrainian landsthere Greek Catholic Church. In fact, instead ofone church was formed two, began a long struggle "Rus Rus" - betweenOrthodox and Greek Catholic. Equalizing the rights proclaimed in the Greek Catholicand Catholics did not happen. Promised for Senate hrekokatolytski bishops notreceived. In a situation the existence of rights of patronage in the Commonwealth of secularpower depended on which church (Orthodox or hrekokatolytska) exist ather subject area.
Fragment of stained glass "Brestunion "
in the metropolitan Cathedral of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church of Sts. Vladimirand Olga in Winnipeg, Canada (Stained-glass windowmakers:Leo Mol)
In the difficult conditions of escalating confrontation on the groundreligion hrekokatolytske clergy was to resist attemptsCatholic Church through the union and catholicize polonizuvaty Ukrainianpopulation. Defending the national identity, hrekokatolytska church provedshe is a Ukrainian church.
The name "hrekokatolytska church hashistorical origins. By the conclusion of the Brest Church Union of Ukrainian andBelarusian Orthodox on land that belonged to the Commonwealth and were subordinatethe Patriarch of Constantinople, considered themselves as belonging to the EasternGreek rite of Christianity, and said that profess to "Greek faith". AfterUnion for the discrimination of those who support it, were in Rome to use the name "hrekykatolyky.However, in the 20-ies XVII century. Union supporters often defined as"Rusynivkatolykiv", or "connected" and Orthodox believers - as nez'yednanyh "or "schismatics". The official name of "Greek Catholic" was first introduced to theirsubjects Austrian Empress Maria Theresa in late XVII century.
Ukrainian Orthodox Church, which the government of the Commonwealthplaced outside the law, not obeyed and continued to seek ways for theirupdate. In so doing, it relied on the support of the Ukrainian Orthodoxnobles, burghers, and new social status - Cossacks.Protection of Orthodoxy has become one of the main slogans in Ukrainiannatsionalnovyzvolniy against the first half of XVII century.
6. Developmentpolemical literature. At the end of XVI - the first half of XVII century. onUkrainian lands large widely polemical works of literature,whose authors, following certain views on religion and the church tried toposition to refute their opponents.
The first notable work of polemical literature in Ukraineis written on behalf of Prince K.-V. Ostrozhskogo response arianyna Reeler Complaints of a book by P. OnUnity Church of God under one shepherd ...». One of the first Orthodoxpysmennykivpolemistiv Ostrog became rector of the school GerasimSmotrytsky. Issued in 1587 of the "keys of the kingdom of heaven" andCalendar New Roman ", he sharply criticized the papacy and Catholicism, defendedorthodoxy and argued harm calendar reform of Pope Gregory XIII.Works of this genre has spread to Ukraine in connection with the preparation and signingUnion of Brest. The most famous Orthodox pysmennykamypolemistamy were Ostrog clergyman, Stephen Zyzaniy, Meletiy Smotrytsky, JohnVyshenskyi, job Boretsky Kopystensky Zechariah.
The figure in the history of
One of the brightest figures in ourearly history XVII Art. was MeletiiSmotrytsky, a talented writer, scientist and philosopher, erudite, a man vsebitively European education, which always took care of the destiny of their people andhis church and made them for all that she could. It was notscientist "is not of peace Seg" - his journalistic pieces, filled with "wisdom"contemporaries read perechytuvaly, discussed wherever located at least oneliterate. Milestones in life. Melety (secular name - max) Smotrytsky(1575-1633) was born in Podolia in the village in a modest Smotrich Orthodoxnoble family. His father was rector Gerasim Smotrytsky famousOstrog Academy, a famous writer and poet, he along with JohnFedorov printed Ostrog Bible. Meletii Smotrytsky studied inOstrog Academy, where his mentor was a Greek Lukarys Cyril, a futurePatriarch of Constantinople, and then - the Jesuits Vilensky Academy.Later he went abroad to complete education and listening to lectures in severalwell-known Polish and German universities, particularly in Vittenberzkomu(Wittenberg - the city where Catholic monk Martin Luther publicized hisabstract-known accusations against the Catholic Church). Reformation Ideas deeplyinfluenced the nobleman with skirts, long after he wrote of himself: "Who I wasthen? Follower of Luther, that the grave of Luther, his young age of sciencepoisoned, sooty smoke Lutheran, came to Lithuania and Russia the same Chadinfected. In Western universities got Smotrytsky of uniform classicaleducation, acquaintance with ancient culture, from philosophers and writersRenaissance, was able to compare the educational system and philosophy of different countries,denominations, universities, and most importantly - a conscious and an advocate of rationalistfreedom of belief. Smotrytsky knew many languages, including starozhytnimyBible, and was one of the most educated people of his time.
Important role in the fightUkrainian people for their faith and language work played by an unknown author earlyXVII century. "Warning." Its author clearly and vividly highlighted the oppressionOrthodox Catholics in the territory of the Commonwealth, and by opposing thisbelieved to spread knowledge, education, typography and the Brotherhood activities.
In his writings condemned pysmennykypolemistyBrest Union of Orthodox hierarchy and those who supported her. They alsodefended the Orthodox faith and the teachings of the Catholic Church criticized. In Orthodoxypolemicist saw the most important factor in survival of the Ukrainian peopleurged all concerned to protect the ancestral faith.
- In the XVI century. Orthodox Church on Ukrainian landswas in crisis.
- Expansion of the reform movement contributed to the developmentreligious freethinking in Ukraine and the exit of the believers of the traditionalchurches.
- Deployment of Counter-Reformation contributed to strongerCatholic Church launched an offensive in the East, one consequence of which wasUnion of Brest.
- Activities of the Orthodox brotherhoods helped burghersrelihiynonatsionalnym resist oppression, contributed to national and culturalawakening of Ukrainian society.
- The Union of Brest led to the emergenceHrekokatolytskoyi Ukrainian church. However, in the Ukrainian societyheightened confrontation on religious grounds.
- The emergence of polemical literature contributed to the formationnational consciousness of the Ukrainian people.
1. As the researchers called the XVI century. inhistory of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church? 2. How to influence the developmentOrthodox Church the right of patronage? 3. As the spread of Protestantism in Ukraineaffected the penetration of Catholicism here? 4. When issued PeresopnitskeGospel? 5. What is brotherhood? 6. What was right stavropihiyiLviv brotherhood? 7. As Ukraine, Belarus belonged to the nobility opportunitiesassociation of Catholic and Orthodox churches? 8. When was concluded Brestchurch union? 9. What is a polemic? Name the most famous names Orthodox pysmennykivpolemistiv.
10. Describe the Orthodox churchXVI century. 11. What impact on the religious situation in Ukraine spread hereReformation and Counter-Reformation movement? 12. Describe the activityOrthodox brotherhoods. 13. What were the prerequisites and consequences of signingUnion of Brest? 14. How influenced the religious situation in Ukraine, development polemicliterature?
15. For card "Church life in the Ukrainian lands instock Commonwealth XVI - first half of XVII century. "names: a)Diocese of the Orthodox Metropolis of Kiev b) Orthodox Church Fellowship in)Orthodox diocese, who accepted the Union of Brest. 16. Make descriptionthe Union of Brest as planned: a) the preconditions conclusion b) the reasons the conclusion;c) the date of signing of the union, d) the contents of the union, and e) results and consequences.
17. In the confrontation that arose between the Orthodox andGreek Catholics after the conclusion of the Union of Brest, Protestant communityimmediately began to help the Orthodox Church. What do you think it wasconditioned? Which way to fight the Catholic Church Protestants couldOrthodox teaching?