§ 5. The emergence of the Ukrainian Cossacks and the first Sich
1. What were the main conditions of the Ukrainian societyat the beginning of the XVI century.? 2. For a map, determine which of the states inmiddle of the XVI century. Ukrainian lands bordering the south. 3. Canbelieve that the Ukrainian southern border was the center of the Christian oppositionand Muslim worlds? Give your opinion.
1. OccurrenceUkrainian Cossacks. Late XV. a future appearance on the historical arenaUkrainian Cossacks. The first mention of the Ukrainian Cossacks in written sourcesdated 1489
Terms and concepts
Cossacks - From the XV-XVI centuries. expeditions to the team titleUkraine and borderland states. The word "Cossack" Turkic origin, meaning"Free Man", "guard", "escort", "voyinnaymanets", "adventurer" and so on. Itwas used as free people, who inhabited the steppes of Southern Ukraine.Because Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi war of Ukrainian people midXVII century. Cossacks become a privileged position.
Background of the Cossacks were associated withhistorical situation in the Ukrainian lands at the end of the XVI century. Whilesouth-eastern boundary of the settlement reached so-called Ukrainian Wild Field - Outback settled population of the steppes between the Don,The upper left and Okoyu straits Desna and Dnepr. It was a great array of freeland that does not actually belong to any country. Natural conditions were the Wild Fieldsextremely conducive to commercial activity.
Description of the natural resources of the Wild Michael FieldsLytvyn
Wild animals, bison, wild horses and deersuch a force in the woods and fields that they hunt only for skin and meat throughlarge number of them are thrown except spina part; deer and wild boardoes not even use. Wild goats in such large quantities leakwinter from the steppes to the forest and back in the summer that each farmer to slaughter themthousand per year. Along riverbanks in many villages there are beavers.Poultry such amazing force that spring boys nazbyruyut goals boats eggs of wildducks, geese, cranes and swans, and later their offspring fill Kurnyky.Virlyat shut in cages for their feathers, which cling to the arrows. Dogsfed meat of wild animals and fish, because the river full of incredibleSturgeon and other big fish.
1. What is the attitude of an author of what hesays? Why do you think so? 2. What attracted Ukrainian Dick Pole?3. What kinds of management contributed to the natural resources of the Wild Fields?
Wishing burghers, peasants and boyars uhodnykiv created for war,who set out to do the Wild Fields prairie crafts (hunting,fishery, beekeeping). The development of Ukrainian populations of these areas almostimmediately nashtovhnulosya at similar phenomenon of the Crimean Khanate and vassalsOttoman Noghay Tatars ulus (nomadic Scythian camp) werelocated in the southern part of the Wild Fields. Trade practice in the outbackplains of uhodnykiv require some courage and military skills, asclashes often occur between them and the Tatar bands. Therefore uhodnykyunited in groups, elected leaders and experienced ozbroyuvalysya respectively.
Numerous conflicts between Tatars and aggravated uhodnykamyrelationships between them. In 1475 The Crimean Khanate became a vassal of the OttomanEmpire and intensified its battle with the neighboring Christian states.The first victims were residents of the Tatar massacres south of Kiev andBratslav provinces. Nechyselni local garrisons in castles could not stopattackers. The local population was forced to associate themselves before Tatardanger.
Over time, those who uhodnytskyh band set off to the WildFields carried out hiking in the desert against the Tatars, or defending them from their homes,became known as Cossacks. By the middle of the XVI century. most of them kozakuvalyfor a certain time and then returned to their regular classes.
The main reasons of Ukrainian Cossacksare processes associated with the development of Ukrainian steppes Wild Field andOrganizations need to protect the population of South and East skirts Kyivfrom attacks of Tatars.
2. Appearance of firstCossack Sich. ActivityDmitry Vishnevetskogo. At the end of XV century. Tatar foray into Ukrainianland have become regular and even reached North Volhynia and Kiev. Thatstay in the Wild Field, Cossacks uhodnyky they built wooden fortifications -"Small towns" and "battles". They lived and were uhodnyky detachment of Cossacks, which couldrepulse the enemy. The vast majority of the Cossack Sich was located on the DnieperBottom of. Based on them, the Cossacks initially displaced from there Tatar nomadic Scythian camp,and then gradually mastered the Great Meadow and Zaporozhye.
Terms and concepts
Dnipro Bottom - The territory on both sides of the Dnieper River, located on its rapids.
Great Lye - Floodplain of the Dnieper,which stretched on both sides of it about. Khortytsya about 100 km andwidth from 3 to 25 km. Total area - more than a million acres of land. Nowalmost the entire territory of the Great Alkali Kakhovske flooded with artificial sea.
Zaporozhye - Land in the lower reaches of the Dnieper to the south ofRapids.
In the middle of the XVI century. Lithuanian government decided toCossacks and use the experience to begin construction on the southern borderfortresses to repel Tartar attacks. But to realize this idea due to lack of fundsnot only the prince Dmitry Vyshnevetsky.
The figure in the history of
Dmitry Vishnevetsky (1516-1563) - a descendant of the great Lithuanian Prince Olgerd, one of theknown leaders in the history of Ukrainian Cossacks. Born in Vyshnivets onDawdle. In the early 50-ies XVI century. he was already Cherkassky andKaniv monitor and organize a resistance to the Turkish attackers. In thisunder the guidance of D. Vishnevetskogo Fr. Small Khortytsya was builtCastle Town, which is considered the inspiration for Zaporizhzhya Sich. The appearance of the Cossackfortresses in the Tatar lands became unpleasant surprise to the CrimeanKhan. Zakripyvshys in Malaya Khortytsya, near the most important crossing the Dnieper,Prince took under protection kozakivuhodnykiv at Big Lug and make adaring raids against Tatar and Turkish forts in the Lower Dnieper and the SouthernBug. June 29, 1556 Vishnevetsky with a detachment in 600 horsemen and team18 gull took Ochakov assault, and the fall of that year Islamkermen fortress.Captured enemy guns in Prince Hortitskom established in the castle.
In early 1557 Khortyts'kyi Castlesurvived the 24-day siege of the Crimean Khan. However, the fall of that year combinedTurkish-Tatar forces were forced to leave at Duke. Small Khortytsya.
In early 1563 during a campaign toMoldova Vishnevetsky captured and was sent to Istanbul. Heroismand martyrdom of Prince celebrated in national Duma on Cossack Baida.
3. Life and LivingCossacks. In the first half of XVI century. in the social structureUkraine's population has gradually increased the number of Cossacks, whichturned into a separate layer mizhstanovyy. Kozakuvannya as household phenomenonbecame customary for Ukrainian society of the XVI century. OfSouthern castles and villages journeyed to the desert for war for prey. First"Walk in the Cossacks" meant, above all, to get under way on the Dnieper Bottom (at bottom)for prey. Later, when the Cossacks was primarily to counter the Ukrainianborder raids Tatars, Cossacks bread "became known as military service.Well-known to military affairs as the Cossacks were hired for military service toforeign rulers.
Living conditions kozakivuhodnykiv that have developed in the plainsWild Field, were strict and simple, requiring physical staminaability to withstand cold and heat, the hardships of military life. Cossacks lived inimprovised huts, woven from reeds and covered with horsehide. ClothingCossacks was a simple homespun cloth and linen. With his wide sewntrousers, shirt, over which the vast kobenyaky dressed and kyreyi thatpidperizuvalysya belt. Footwear served boots and hats - cap.
Cossack food was unpretentious, but nutritious. They were preparedSalamakha, black cock, Scherba - dishes cooked millet, rye flour and fishused in food fried dried fish and game. Cossack life was verysaturated, because everything they did with her hands. Various classescrafts combined with military service, patching weapons and equipment,cooking, hiking stocks. But in the short moments of leisure Cossacksloved to sing songs, listen to or play on Kobza zatantsyuvaty.
Following military campaigns Cossack units returnedof the Lower Dnieper to rest home. Although the Cossacks defendedborder attacks against Tatar, Lithuanian and Polish governments oftenendorsed their actions. Attacking the possession of the Turkish Sultan and the CrimeanKhan, the Cossacks created many problems, Grand Duke of Lithuania and Polandking. Therefore, in old southern districts of Kiev and Steppe Bratslavprovinces relied duties Cossacks control to prevent their acquisitionand independent campaigns against the Tatars.
From a letter to the Crimean Khan SahibHireyaPolish King Sigismund I (early 40's of the XVI century).
... Come the Cossacks and Cherkassy Kanevsky,are on the Dnieper above our ulus and do harm to our people. I have many timesnotify you of these Cossacks to be refreshed, but your mercy is notobey. If you want friendship with us, send us those who diddamage otherwise offended against us, and we do not want to break our brotherhoodrelations and the oath, but those locks - Cherkassy and Kahn - will send our army.
As the Cossack raids complicated relations between the PolishKing and the Crimean khan?
- From the end of the XV century. appear in historical evidenceinformation about the appearance of Cossacks in this southern desert areas. Underborder formed a unique type - Cossack man, a feature whichwas to combine into one soldier and worker.
- The value of DI for the formation VishnevetskogoCossacks is that he, unlike other chiefsSouthern cities, first launched activities in Zaporozhye.
- Forming a sort of Cossack way of life contributedhis gradual transformation from mizhstanovoho layer on a separate stateUkrainian society that emerged in the 70-80's XVI century.
1. What dates from the year first written mention of theUkrainian Cossacks? 2. What is Dick Pole? 3. What were the causes ofUkrainian Cossacks? 4. What is Great Meadow? 5. On which island foundedyour castle "Small Town" D. Vishnevetsky? 6. When the assault took Vishnevetsky D.Ochakov fortress? 7. When the Cossacks became a separate state of Ukrainian society?
8. What were the conditions and causesUkrainian Cossacks? 9. What the facts show that in the first halfXVI century. Ukrainian Cossacks were mizhstanovym social strata? 10.Tell us about the appearance of the first Cossack Sich. 11. Describe the activities of D.Vishnevetskogo. 12. What were the particular way of life of the Cossacks?
13. KnownUkrainian historian Ivan Krypiakevych wrote of Ukrainian Cossacks that "in the plainsoriginal developed a type of mistress, but in its defense of the new militaryorganization, again under the influence of measures of the mistress and the war against steppe hordesthere was a new Cossack community, with its individual life and individual outlook.Do you share the opinion reproduced? Give facts that support or itssuspicions.