§ 18 World Agriculture: The value intra-industry structure, interdisciplinary connections, agrarian relations. Major agricultural areas.
With a long history of human civilization agriculture undergone rapid progress. Greatly expanded the number of crops and domestic animals, new tools, greatly intensified selection activities, widely began to apply fertilizers (organic first and then mineral), chemical protection against pests, reclamation, successfully apply the rotation.
Compared with other sectors and spheres of economic activity agricultural development major characteristic of the areas long production process, lower materials consumption, most labor /.
Since most agricultural products is one commodities, the prices on it are low. Therefore, industry needs a strong government support. Such assistance is constantly providing developed countries. For example, support for agricultural producers is a most significant items of expenditure in the budgets of the EU, USA.
Agriculture occupies an important place in all sectors without exception of countries. For a large group of developing countries, it is the basis economic system. His role in countries with significant populations (China, India, Indonesia), because agriculture guarantees food, respectively, and strategic security. In developed countries, share of agriculture in GDP is low, but it remains an important source of revenue.
In modern farming conventionally are two types:
Starting with 60 years of the twentieth century. in some developing countries, was the so-called "green revolution", which covered the range measures that eventually allowed to raise rural low- economy to a modern level. This applied also to view property ground. Land, who was in public ownership or possession peasant communities, passed into private ownership. Retrieving land private property, a farmer got to lay the ground at the bank. Banks have money to give farmers loans for acquisition agricultural machinery and fertilizers. Of the costs of implementation "Green revolution" took the state, such as the implementation of expensive programs for land development, agricultural development machinery, mineral fertilizers and means of combating pests. On the budget was set large breeding centers breeding new varieties of crops and breeds of domestic animals. Some of them have gained international recognition - in Mexico (developing new wheat and corn), Philippines (rice output) in Colombia (Tropical fruit).
The modern world agriculture is difficult to imagine in isolation from industries that serve it. Their organizational association found reflected in the formation agroindustrial complex (AIC). Formation of a single complex of different sectors related to agriculture allowed to significantly reduce costs and dramatically improve the production process.
APC have 30 years of the twentieth century. in the USA and was a response agricultural businesses in the Great Depression 1929-1933, after World War II and before the end. process of agriculture has captured all developed countries and some developing countries. But today AIC has developed a few countries.
The structure of agriculture into three components:
In the U.S., where agriculture has reached the highest degree of maturity, the ratio between components such as a percentage - 14:13:73. This suggests a minor role Agriculture in the structure of modern agriculture. Currently work agricultural products without the presence of highly related areas virtually impossible.
Structure of three-level modern agriculture.
Crop cultivation of various crops part of which is fodder for livestock. In the southern countries are often warm and humid climate, traditionally dominated by plant (In Europe it - Italy, Spain, Greece). Sometimes a significant role tradition. For example, in India for almost 5000 years old Hindu formed solid vegetarian tradition according to which most people do not take meat. A similar tradition has formed in Japan, where people prefer fish and seafood. In the Nordic countries, Conversely, more developed animal (Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany). In the U.S., the ratio between crop and livestock roughly the same.
At a level within Plant distinguish separate groups of crops: grains, technical, other food (vegetables, fruits) and feed.
The leading groups of the remaining grain. In recent years, With the increase in output of livestock products has increased proportion of forage crops.
In the animal at this level has traditionally allocated: cattle, pigs, sheep and other industries.
The leading group of crops are cereals. They cover about half of all arable land. Different types of crops can be grown in all without exception natural areas, where possible in all crops and crop rotations, which is important for crop production. With the optimal combination of proteins, fats and carbohydrates are zernvi important food and forage crops. In addition, production grain effectively - to grow a quintal of grain is consumed more than 1 man-hours of labor.
The gross production of grain for a long time occupied a leading position developed countries. With the "green revolution" in the last decade some developing countries, were able to quickly increase production cereals (China, India, Indonesia, Brazil).
Cereals are of great strategic importance. Usually consider if the country produces grain at least 1 000 kg / person, it provided not only meat but also major types of animal products. Most developed countries are provided with grain: Canada, Australia, USA, France and Argentina. In the crowded countries of Asia and Africa this rate is very low.
To estimate the level of development of grain farming in the country used the average yield of grain crops. His highest values (50-75 kg / ha) typical of developed countries and for some countries with intensive agriculture (Japan, U.S., South Korea, Egypt). The lowest yields - in the poorest African countries (1-10 kg / ha).
The major crops - wheat, rice and corn, which called "three loaves of mankind". Gross harvest them the same. By wheat acreage nearly twice the area dominated by rice, which can give 2-3, and sometimes four crops a year.
Wheat is grown in temperate and subtropical climatic zones. In Northern hemisphere climatic zones of the area greater than in the South, so here gather more harvest. World leader in manufacturing wheat are China, India, USA, Russia, France, Germany, Ukraine, Canada.
Rice is grown mostly in Asian countries with monsoon climate. Among the other regions of significant production of rice are Brazil, USA.
Rice farm. China
The largest corn harvest traditionally collect the U.S., Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina). Much smaller role of European countries (France, Italy, Romania, Hungary). In recent years, increased production of corn some Asian countries, especially China, India.
Gross harvest of barley and millet crops, oats and rye significantly lower than wheat, rice and corn. The largest gathering of the country's barley crop temperate and subtropical climatic zones of the Northern Hemisphere (Canada, Russia, Germany, Spain, France). Barley - feed primarily, but not food crops. In addition, some countries (Germany, Czech Republic), he is the raw material for beer production. Millet, sorghum, dzhovar, badzhra, rahi - are important food crops for most African countries and some Asian countries. In the U.S., Latin America it is widely used in the production of fodder. Major crops millet crops are harvested in India, Nigeria, the USA, Mexico and China.
Oats and rye spread about in the same regions and countries where and barley. The gross collection of oats in the world emit Russia, Canada, USA, Australia, Germany, rye - Russia, Poland, Ukraine, China. Oat mainly forage crops, corn - food. With rye baked black bread. Traditionally, the world famous black bread Poland, Germany, Denmark, Russia, Sweden.
In global trade usually gets no more than 10% grain. Since the grain is largely strategic goods, each country trying to produce it themselves. In recent years large grain exporters are the USA, Canada, Australia, Argentina, the country European Union, Australia, China, major importers - countries Latin America, North Africa, South and West South-East Asia.
For each region of the world characterized by a set of basic grains cultures: for Europe - wheat, barley, rye, for Asia - rice, wheat, for America - corn, wheat, for Australia - wheat, for Africa - corn, sorghum, millet.
In the corn field
Important place in the modern world agricultural production is industrial crops. Technical considered crops that require further industrial processing. These include oil, sugar, tonic, fibrous, kauchukonosni culture.
Among the leading position of the oil, soy, canola, sunflower and peanut.
Sunflower field. Monitoba, Canada
The major soybean growing areas in the world are countries with large rainfall in the summer. Homeland soybean consider China. But major crops over the past decades collected in the United States. Forcefully increasing production of soybeans Latin America (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia) and India. Soya is an important culture for fodder production due to larger protein content.
The main world producers of rape - European countries (France, Germany, Poland) and Canada, peanuts - India, China, USA, Brazil, Argentina, Nigeria, sunflower - Argentina, Ukraine, Russia, USA, France, oil palm - South-East Asia, Gulf of Guinea and Oceania, oil - the Mediterranean (especially Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey).
The most popular among sugar crops have received only two - sugar cane and sugar beet. Sugar cane was cultivated in V Art. in Bengal, from where it spread around the world. But it is nowhere more not well settled, as in Latin America. Sugar beet was domesticated much later. The first sugar beet received in Germany in late eighteenth century.
Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth century. main sugar culture was considered sugar beet. At this time sugar producers were developed countries. Further production and moved to countries that developing countries by the proportion of sugarcane has increased dramatically (up to 70%). Sugar production from sugar cane was more effective than that due to its high yield. The maximum yields of sugar cane collect Brazil and India. The south of the country specializing in producing sugar from sugar cane, and the north - from sugar beet. Only two countries (China and the U.S.) producing sugar from both cultures. The powerful sugar exporters are Brazil, Cuba, Australia, Thailand, France, Germany, major importers - Russia, China, Japan, USA, India, UK.
Technical (sugar, klubneplodnaya) Tonic and cultural
Important tonic cultures are coffee, cocoa and tea. For each of these cultures transition from an historical "homeland" the new location. Yes, the birthplace of coffee was Africa, and large modern area of cultivation was Latin America. The largest harvest of coffee collected in two countries - Brazil and Colombia. Recently, fast increases the total coffee export duties and Asia (Vietnam, Indonesia) African (especially C
Brazil and Colombia, which most coffee is grown, hardly compete each other. Brazil cultivates regular coffee that is grown on plantations outdoors and gather combine. This coffee has a bitter taste and black. Colombia cultivated elite varieties of coffee. They are grown in the shade of tall trees and collect manually. This coffee has a sour taste aroma.
Homeland cocoa consider Latin America (chocolate drink still used ancient Mayan tribe), and of large manufacturers are African countries (C
Tea was cultivated in China, which now consist of its most varieties. Over 100 years of the largest producers of tea is a former British colonies: India, Sri Lanka, Kenya. Recently, significantly increased production of tea, Indonesia, Turkey, Vietnam, Argentina.
"Homeland" of tobacco, which are considered the drug culture, is Latin America, from where it spread around the world. The largest China became a producer of tobacco. It is far behind India, Brazil, USA. U.S. gradually gross yield of tobacco, while countries that developing countries - are increasing. Large crops of tobacco collect Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Greece, Italy) and some countries Africa (Zimbabwe, Malawi).
Go to the tonic can be enrolled and drug culture that widely used in medicine. Major suppliers of these cultures are Asian countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran (the country's "Golden crescent "), Myanmar, Thailand, Laos (" Golden Triangle ") and some Latin American countries, primarily Colombia. Governments of all civilized countries have a fight against the illicit traffic in narcotic plants.
Among the most common rubber plant rubber tree. Its historical "Homeland" is Brazil, but at the end of the nineteenth century. leading position in producing latex captured South-East (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia) and South (India, Sri Lanka) Asia. Comparatively small latex production are African countries (C
Technical (oil and fiber) culture
Fibrous culture - One of the most important among industrial crops. These include cotton, flax dovhunets, hemp, abacus, jute, sisal. Cotton was cultivated in Latin America. On today the largest producers of cotton are Asian countries (China, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Syria) and the USA, Brazil, Greece. Egypt grows cotton satin and became its largest supplier to the world market. Most serednovoloknystoyi cotton U.S. exports (30%), China, Pakistan, Central Asia. The largest cotton importers Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong and European countries.
World leaders to produce long-fibred flax - European countries (France, Russia, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Belgium), abaca - Philippines, Jute - India, Bangladesh, sisal - East Africa (Tanzania, Kenya) and Latin America (Brazil).
It is important to growing food crops such as potatoes, vegetables and fruits. Currently, the gross collection of major potato positions in the world are China, Russia, India, USA, Ukraine, Germany, Poland, Belarus, Netherlands, Britain waged. Most of potato per capita growing population of Ireland, Belarus, Poland, the Netherlands.
The gross world leaders gathering vegetables are large countries with populations and favorable climatic conditions (China, India, USA) per capita - Mediterranean countries: Turkey, Italy, Greece). Major crops of tomatoes collected in the U.S. China, Italy, Turkey, cabbage - in China, South Korea, Japan, Onion - China, India, USA.
World leader in fruit are the countries with favorable climatic conditions - China, India, Brazil, USA. Most of the fruits of collected per capita in the Mediterranean. The gross collection apples emit China and the U.S., grapes - Italy, France, Spain, USA, Oranges - Brazil, USA, lemons - Mexico, Argentina, India, Iran, Mandarin - Japan, bananas - India, China and Latin American countries Mango - India. An absolute leader (80%) of exports of orange juice (frozen concentrate in the form) are Brazil, Banana - Ecuador, Costa Rica, Colombia. Rapidly increasing production and exports wine Argentina, Chile, South Africa, Algeria, Australia.
Centres of origin of important crops
|Centres of origin||Crops|
|Mediterranean||Oats, oils, flax dovhunets, cabbage, carrots, beets (including diabetes), rutabaga, turnips, radishes, dill, parsley, celery, garlic, cumin, mint, lavender|
|Perednoaziyskyy||Durum wheat, rye, barley, apple, pear, grapes, cherry, plum, cherry, quince, cherry-plum, pomegranate, fig, melon, almond, chestnut, poppy, rose, persimmon, forage grass: vetch, alfalfa, clover|
|Central Asian||Peas, lentils, hemp, onion, garlic, spinach, apricots, peaches, grapes, walnuts, hemp|
|Indian (covering the Indo-Malay)||Rice, sugar cane, cucumber, eggplant, yam, banana, citrus (orange, lemon), mango, breadfruit tree, coconut palm, sesame seeds, black pepper, nutmeg|
|Chinese||Buckwheat, millet, soy, mustard, barley, radish, plum, persimmon, tea, cinnamon, camphoric tree, olive, mulberry|
|Abissynskyy (Ethiopian)||Soft wheat, sorghum, coffee, rytsyna|
|Central America||Corn, beans, sunflower, flax kucheryavets, cotton, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, avocados, peppers, papaya, cocoa, tomato, tobacco, agave, cinchona, vanilla|
|South American (covering Peruano-Ecuadorian, Bolivian, Chilean, Brazilian-Paraguayan)||Potato, cassava, peanuts, cotton satin, pineapple, strawberries, rubber tree|
Contemporary brewery production. Scotland
In the animal is divided into four main areas - farming, pigs, sheep, chickens, and others - horse breeding, verblyudarstvo, olenyarstvo, sericulture.Among the individual regions of the world most numerous cattle Cattle are Asia, Latin America, Africa. In addition to the cows here bred buffalo, zebu, vatusi. Productivity of cattle in countries developing small. Cattle in Europe and North America are few, but highly productive. Developed countries produce the bulk of the global beef and milk.
Intensive dairy or beef cattle are characterized mainly for small farms, and extensive cattle ranching - large farms. Large livestock farms are typical for countries that have significant grassland area (USA, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina).
Most developed pig - in China. Traditionally, many pigs bred in the U.S., Europe (Germany, Spain, Russia, Poland, France, the Netherlands) and Latin American countries (Brazil, Mexico).
Distribution of sheep and livestock distribution kozivnytstva resembles a large cattle. In developing countries, most sheep are raised in China, India, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, and goats - in India, Pakistan, Iran, some African countries. This low-yield stock, gives small amount of wool, down, meat. In developed countries (Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, South Africa) stock few, but gives a lot of wool.
In most poultry breeding hens, to a lesser extent - geese ducks, turkeys. Poultry produces eggs and meat industrial basis. Of the total world poultry 40% occurs in Asia, where leaders are China, Japan, India, Indonesia. On European countries accounted for 17%. Most poultry is grown in France, Great Britain, Italy and Romania. In North America accounted for 11% (About 1 / 2 U.S., 1 / 4 in Mexico), in South America - 10% (2 / 5 in Brazil) to Africa - 9% (Nigeria, Ethiopia, Egypt, South Africa).
Great importance in the diet of the population play a seafood especially fish. World Fisheries an annual 75 million tons of fish and another 20 million tons get artificial breeding of fish. 2 / 3 of marine fish produce in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of America and East Asia, and 1 / 4 - in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Europe and North America. The most numerous herd of horses in China, Mexico, Brazil, the largest camels bred South-West Asia and North Africa reindeer - in Russia, Canada, United States (Alaska) and Scandinavian countries.
In many regions of the world of horses used as a traction force
World leader in meat traditionally developed countries (USA, France, Germany, Spain, Russia, Italy, Canada, Argentina, Australia, UK, Japan). Recently increased its production of some developing countries (China, Mexico, India, Brazil). Most meat produced per capita in New Zealand, of Denmark, Australia and the Netherlands. Consider that the country provides a completely meat, if it produces no less than 100 kg / person per year. Highest share of beef in Argentina, India, Australia, Russia, Brazil, pork - in China, Germany, Spain, lamb - in New Zealand, Australia, India, poultry - in the U.S., UK, Mexico, Brazil and France.
The largest world exporter of beef are Brazil, Australia, U.S., Canada, pork - Denmark, the Netherlands, Canada, China, lamb - Australia, New Zealand, UK, poultry - USA, France, Brazil, the Netherlands. The largest purchase meat abroad exercise U.S., Japan, the European Union.
World leader in milk production are developed countries and some developing countries (India, Brazil, Pakistan, Mexico, Argentina). Most milk produced per capita in New Zealand (about 3 tons) of Denmark (1 t), Lithuania (800 l), Netherlands (700 l). The largest average milk yield per cow was registered in the U.S. (7100 l / year), of Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland (About 7000 liters / year). Average milk yields in developing countries, much smaller - in Argentina - 4 000 L, Brazil - 1 800 l, China - 900 liters.
Most butter produced in India, USA, France, Pakistan, Germany, New Zealand, Russia and Poland. By producing cheese allocate U.S., France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands. The largest exporters of milk powder, butter and cheese are New Zealand, Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium.
Cattle farm. Ontario, Canada
Companies that recycle or produce various kinds agricultural products are among the largest in the world. Among them the purpose of - "Mars", "United brends" "General Foods" Pilsberi "," Altris groups (up to 2003 - "Philip Morris") (USA), Nestle (Switzerland), Unilever (UK and Netherlands). "Swift", "Ermor" (USA) specialize in the processing of meat, "Kraftko" "Beatrice Food" (USA), Danone (France), "Ermann (Germany)," Campina " (Netherlands) - milk.
Standard Fruit stimshin End "(USA) - a major supplier of tropical fruit, Del Monte (USA) manufactures including juices, jams, compotes, Coca-Cola "and" Pepsi "(USA) manufactures soft drinks and mineral water. "Jacobs" and "Chibo (Germany), processed coffee," Er DJ Reynolds, Imperial Tobacco (USA), British American Tobacco Group (USA and UK) and Japan Co. Tobacco Group International (Japan) - tobacco. "Mak Donalds "and" Mack Chico (USA) controlling the world's largest system fast food.